Dog Body Language: How to Speak Dog

Canine Body Language

“The bite came out of the blue.”

The truth is … our dogs are speaking and they are begging us to listen to them. Unfortunately, too many of us do not understand the subtle signals that make up dog body language. When we don’t see, or if we choose to ignore, our dogs’ subtle signals, they have no choice but to speak louder through growls, barks, snarls … and even bites.

Growls are good!

A growl is just your dog’s vocal way to tell you that he is uncomfortable and would like you to please stop doing what you are doing …

  • “I get anxious when you restrain me. Please stop hugging me.”
  • “It hurts when you pull on my matted fur. Please stop brushing me.”
  • “I don’t want to get in the car, it’s scary. Please stop forcing me.”
  • “I have arthritis and I hurt. Please stop petting my leg.”
  • “I just want to enjoy my dinner. Please stop sticking your hand in my bowl.”

We have to stop thinking of dogs as our own little furry puppets that must be happy no matter what we choose to do to them. Dogs are sentient beings that feel grumpy, scared, tired, etc. We need to respect those feelings and give our dogs the grace to choose to tell us “Not right now, please.”

A growl is not a personal attack on you …

… please don’t take it as such. How many times have you snapped at a family member who is pestering you when you have a headache or had a bad day at work or just want a bit of alone time? Your dog is simply trying to communicate in a way that you will understand.

Never punish your dog for growling.

The biggest mistake that we can make is to punish our dogs for growling. A dog that has learned that he will be punished will stop growling. As a result, rather than giving you this important warning signal, they will go from subtle signals, straight to a bite.


Dogs speak with their bodies. Sometimes our dogs’ emotions are written all over their faces, so it is easy to determine how they are feeling. For example, almost anyone can tell which of these two dogs is happy that you are approaching.

Most of the time, however, signs that a dog is uncomfortable are much more subtle. Does this dog want you to approach or move away? How can you tell? This blog post will teach you what subtle signals to look for and how to interpret dog body language.

Canine Body Language - stressed
I’m worried.


We can tell a lot about how our dogs are feeling by observing their posture and body position. A happy, relaxed dog has a loose, fluid posture.  

A dog that is anxious or unsure has a stiff posture.  

Canine Body Language - stiff, tense posture
Stiff, tense posture

If a dog’s posture stiffens when you approach, it is an indication that the dog is not comfortable. He is asking you to give him more distance. Similarly, crouching and/or leaning away are very clear indicators that you are too close.


Humans, dogs and other animals all have personal space bubbles. The size of any individual’s personal space bubble is unique and dependent on many factors. Think about how you feel when someone invades your personal space.

Just like humans, dogs can get very uncomfortable when their personal space is invaded. Dogs will show their discomfort with subtle body language. If you don’t listen and give them space, they will do one of three things: freeze and hope you just go away, flee from you or, as a last resort, bark and lunge in order to make you move away. The inability to flee is why many leashed, crated and tethered dogs bark and lunge when people and dogs approach.


Study your dog’s normal tail carriage or the normal carriage for his breed. A stressed dog will carry its tail high above its back or very low. – sometimes to the point of tucking it between the back legs. Docked tails not only impair a dog’s ability to express his feelings, but also make it difficult for other dogs (and people) to read his body language.

Canine Body Language - neutral tail carriage
Neutral tail carriage

“His tail is wagging, he must be friendly.”

Yes. A happy dog will wag its tail; however, an anxious or stressed dog will also wag its tail. Do not assume that a wagging tail is a signal that the dog wants to be petted. A relaxed dog will wag its tail in a wide, slow arc. A dog that is highly aroused will hold its tail high and wag its tail rapidly in a very small arch. Do not judge a dog by its tail wag alone. Always assess the entire dog.


Ear carriage changes with a dog’s emotions. Look at your dog’s normal ear carriage. When his ears move up and/or forward or if they drop down and/or back, he is feeling stress of some sort … anxious, unsure, concerned, etc..

Canine Body Language - floppy ears - neutral
Floppy ears – neutral

As with tail docking, cropping a dog’s ears make reading dog body language difficult for people and other dogs.


A dog’s face displays a wealth of communication signals. The eyes, brows, mouth, tongue and even the whiskers will change with your dog’s emotional state. The signs of stress noted below can indicate that your dog is anxious, confused, concerned, frightened, etc. Regardless of the reason, when you see signs of stress in your dog, stop what you are doing and give him space.


Dogs will wrinkle their brow or raise their eyebrows when they are feeling stressed or unsure. This can lead to the classic “guilty look“. What this look really means is that your dog is feeling uncomfortable and unsure of a particular situation.


A relaxed dog’s eyes are generally more of an almond shape and have a soft look. An stressed dog may exhibit any of the following:

  • wide and round eyes
  • dilated pupils (the black circle in the middle of the eye is enlarged)
  • whale eye (an arc of white showing around the edges of the eyes)
  • hard” eyes (more of a hard stare).
  • squinting – used to avoid eye contact
Canine Body Language - eyes - dilated pupils
Eyes – dilated pupils


A relaxed dog has a relaxed mouth – either open, often with tongue hanging out, or closed with loose, relaxed lips. A stressed dog will have a closed, stiff mouth. In these dogs, the lips will be tense as well – often forming a long straight line than may create wrinkles at the corner of the mouth. If pressed, the dog may lift their lips to expose their teeth. This may or may not be accompanied by a growl.


The whiskers of a stressed dog will stick out prominently and be directed forward. The whisker bed will be raised (the area around each whisker will be very pronounced).

Canine Body Language - whiskers - directed forward with raised whisker bed
Whiskers – directed forward with raised whisker bed
Canine Body Language - Whiskers around nose eyes directed forward w/ raised whisker beds & “hard” eyes
Whiskers around nose eyes directed forward w/ raised whisker beds & “hard” eyes


When dogs feel anxious or are presented with stressful situations, they will perform behaviors meant to calm themselves or diffuse the situation. These behaviors are called calming signals or appeasement gestures. Calming signals include things like paw lifts, lip licking and yawns. When a dog is unsure, you will often see her avoiding eye contact either by turning her head to the side or by averting her eyes. Consequently, we often see calming signals when taking photos as pointing a camera/phone at a dog can make them uncomfortable.


Some dogs will present multiple signals. On the other hand, some dogs will present only one or two signals. Remember – always judge the entire dog – not just one body part. A dog may be wagging its tail, but … How is he holding his tail? How fast is it wagging? What about his eyes and ears? Is his mouth closed and tense or open and relaxed?

Even puppies are speaking to us through their body language.

Watch this great video on body language.

Dog Body Language: Quiz 1

Which husky looks happier to see you at his gate?

  • A. Signals: open relaxed mouth, neutral ears, soft eyes, whiskers directed forward; This dog is exhibiting relaxed body language.
  • B. Signals: stiff posture, body directed forward, closed mouth with lips set in a straight line, whiskers directed forward, ears set back and down, hard eyes, high tail carriage; This dog is exhibiting stressed body language.
Dog Body Language: Quiz 2:

Which of these dogs look happy to be the recipient of human attention?

  • A. Signals: relaxed posture, open relaxed mouth, neutral ears, soft eyes; This dog is exhibiting relaxed body language.
  • B. Signals: stiff posture with body directed backward, wide round eyes with whale eye (difficult to see with the blue eyes), furrowed brow, ears pinned down and back, closed mouth with straight lips, whiskers directed forward; This dog is exhibiting stressed body language.
  • C. Signals: loose, relaxed posture, relaxed mouth, neutral ears; This dog is exhibiting relaxed body language.
  • D. Signals: stiff posture, closed mouth with straight lips, airplane ears, head turned away, whiskers directed forward; This dog is exhibiting stressed body language.
  • E. Signals: crouched posture, body directed away from the person, wide round eyes with whale eye, prominent whisker bed, closed mouth with straight lips, furrowed brow, ears pinned back; This puppy is exhibiting stressed body language.
  • F. Signals: stiff posture with body directed away from person, yawning, squinting eyes; This dog is exhibiting stressed body language.

The dogs in photos A and C are the only ones in this group with relaxed body language. Note that in both of these photos, the human is not constraining the dog and is respecting its personal space.

Dog Body Language: Quiz 3

Now, with your new knowledge of body language, how do you interpret this photo? Does the dog want you to come closer or move away? What body language signals are telling you this?

Canine Body Language - stressed
I’m worried.

This dog is saying: Move away.

Signals: Tense posture directed backward, ears are pinned back and down, head is turned away, whale eye, tense closed mouth; paw lift.

Dog Body Language: Quiz 4

Go back through the rest of the photos in this blog. What other stress signals do you see each dog exhibiting?

77% of dog bites happen with a family or friend's dog. Now that you know better, do better. "Stop the 77"

Dog Body Language: Quiz 4

Try out the new Family Paws Doggie Detective interactive body language tool.


To learn more about dog body language:

  • Doggie Language by Lili Chin
  • On Talking Terms with Dogs: Calming Signals by Turid Rugaas
  • Canine Body Language: A Photographic Guide by Brenda Aloff
  • A Kids’ Comprehensive Guide to Speaking Dog!:  A fun, interactive educational resource to help the whole family understand canine communication by Niki Tudge
  • Family Paws
  • The Family Dog

Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Turn Your Dog Walk Into A Sniff Walk

What makes for a great dog walk?  Is it a power walk through your neighborhood with your Fitbit tracking your every step?  Nope.  That is YOUR walk.  What your dog wants is an opportunity to just go where he wants to go and do what he wants to do. The ideal ‘walk’ for your dog is a time to just run free … time to just “dog” … to roll in the grass, to sniff, to dig, to chase critters ….  The term decompression walk was defined by Sarah Stremming as “a walk where the dog is allowed freedom of movement in nature”. Decompression time for your dog has the same benefits as it does for us humans.  Studies have shown that sniffing actually lowers your dog’s pulse rate and reduces their stress. 

The best experience for any dog is time spent off-leash.  If you plan to allow your dog to run off leash, there are some very important things to consider before you head out the door:  

  1. Are there ordinances in your area about off leash dogs?  If so, make sure that you are going to off-leash friendly areas.  Don’t be the dog owner that lets your dog off leash in on-leash only locations.  
  2. Make sure that your dog has a bomb-proof recall before letting your dog off leash in an un-enclosed space.  Nothing good is going to come from this.
  3. Be aware and respectful of others.  Keep this in mind and prevent your dog from harassing others (remember that bomb-proof recall in #2). Not every dog wants to be your dog’s friend and not every person is comfortable around dogs … and they have the right to enjoy that space without being harassed by an off-leash dog.  

But, what if you don’t have off-leash zones in your area, your dog doesn’t have a solid recall yet or she isn’t good with strange dogs or people?

Sniffspot is an online service that lists private “dog parks” that can be rented for solo use.  These spaces may be as simple as someone’s backyard or they could be acres and acres of fenced land.  Sniffspot is growing, but you won’t find spaces in every location.

No Sniffspots available in your area? No worries.

Even if you can’t find a safe space for a true off-leash experience, you can still get many of the benefits of off leash time through a more controlled Sniff Walk, or Sniffari. A sniff walk is a walk during which your dog is allowed the freedom to be a dog while still safely controlled with a harness and long line.

Sniff Walk How-To’s:


  • Long line.  A long line is just a extra long leash that comes in lengths anywhere from 10 to 100 feet. They are great for training recalls, but make the perfect sniff walk leash. You can purchase a long line or simply make your own. Tie a clip to one end of a length of rope to hook to your dog’s harness. Then tie a loop at the other end for a handle.
  • Harness.  A harness is much safer than a collar for any walk.  Look for a harness that allows full range of motion.  For example, harnesses with a band across the chest restrict shoulder movement.
  • Hands free leash system (optional). A hands-free belt to attach your long line to works great to free up your hands. Now you can dispense treats or handle the line to keep it from getting tangled.
  • Treat pouch with treats or kibble.  If your dog has never been on a sniff walk, you may need to toss a few treats into the grass/bushes to encourage him and let him know that it is okay to sniff. Instead of treats, toss the food bowl and take your dog’s meal along to scatter feed in the grass.
  • Poop bags. Clean up after your dog. Do not allow your dog to damage/destroy private or public property – including digging, crushing plants, etc.

I do not recommend using a retractable leash for several reasons:

  First, they are dangerous.  Many a dog owner or bystander can attest to retractable leash injuries such as rope burns, cuts, and even amputations.  If you drop the leash, many dogs are terrified by the handle “chasing” them – making them harder to catch or, worse, causing them into run into traffic in an effort to escape.  Finally, our goal is a relaxing walk and retractable leashes maintain a constant tension on the line which is not relaxing for the dog.

How do you find a safe space for a Sniff Walk? 

 If you live in a rural area, you probably don’t need to look too far to find a wonderful enclosed space for you dog to explore.  But what if you live in a more urban area?  Here is how you can locate a safe place for a sniffari.

  1. First, set Google Maps or Mapquest to ‘satellite’ mode and type your home address into the search box.
  2. Next, look for green spaces within easy walking or driving distance. Yes, you may need to drive a bit to find a good location.  
  3. Once you have located some potential spaces, check each one to determine if it will fit your needs.  On the map below, I have marked potential green spaces in my area.  
  4. Check land ownership and local ordinances.
    • The red zones on the map are great spaces, but, sadly, off limits to dogs.  Check your local ordinances for parks and cemeteries. If dog friendly, these make great sniff zones. 
    • The purple and blue zones are all dog-friendly possibilities.  The two largest purple zones are filled with fantastic nature trails.  However, I have reactive dogs and these trails are often narrow with few opportunities to allow enough space for other dogs to pass by without triggering reactions.  Since point of a sniff walk is to allow your dog to decompress, these areas are not good options for reactive dogs. Be sure to keep these kind of things in mind when searching for sniff walk spaces.
    •  The little rectangle towards the top of the map is a tiny dog park.  On occasion, I have been able to get this space all to myself, but it not always open and is quite small.
  5. So, that leaves the blue zone. This is a university campus and just happens to tick all th boxes.  
  • Dog friendly (allow dogs and safe)
  • Easy walk from home (or easily accessible by car)
  • Plenty of green space and interesting textures, surfaces and smells to explore
  • Plenty of space to allow my dogs to get the distance they need from triggers
  • Tons of great places to sniff

Throughout COVID many college campuses and other public spaces have been relatively quiet zones – a definite perk for those of us with reactive dogs.  When students and faculty are on campus, however, I simply time my walks for less active times of the day. In general, however, you won’t find owners out on sniff walks spending much time on the sidewalks. We are generally following our dogs across the lawns and checking out the bushes.  So it is not too hard to avoid the human crowds. 

Other great space options to check into:

  • Cemeteries
  • School campuses
  • Parks and playgrounds
  • SniffSpot
  • Office parking lots or industrial parks
  • Beaches and waterfronts
  • Quiet neighborhoods
  • Empty dog parks
  • Nature center
  • Visitor center or rest area
  • Picnic area or campground
  • Paths and trails (beware of narrow trails)
  • Golf courses
  • Private lands
  • Farms
  • Church grounds

*Be sure that you contact the property owner and/or check local laws and statutes before taking your dog onto private property.

So, now that we have the equipment and the space that we need, join us as we take our morning sniff walk!  

I choose to take our sniff walks in the morning and bring breakfast along in my treat pouch.  I use two-point attachment leashes – long leashes with clips at both ends and multiple rings to allow you to adjust the length of the lead.  These give me the versatility of having 4-foot leashes when walking through the neighborhood, and the ability to allow the full 8 feet of line for sniffing.

Sniff Walk Adventures
Hi Ho, Hi Ho, It’s off for a sniff walk we go!

Once on campus, I can let out the lines.  My 8-foot leashes don’t allow for as much freedom as a 15- or 30-foot long line. That said, they do allow me to take everyone out together and maintain control if we encounter groups of people on campus. It is also convenient for me to not have to carry along four separate long lines every day.  

Once I lengthen the leashes, the dogs are in charge.  

Sniff Walk Adventures
I think there is a bunny in here!
Sniff Walk Adventures
I’m sure it’s back in here somewhere!

We go wherever they take me and sniff whatever they want and for as long as they choose.  One exception: They are allowed to sniff the flowers, but not trample through the beds. 

Occasionally, I will toss out a handful of kibble in the grass for them to snuffle.  The dogs are in charge here as well. They choose the scatter spots by slowing down and looking back at me. Once they have finished their snuffling, we are off again.  


Do NOT try to scatter feed with multiple dogs in the same space without some prior training. Sign up for a consultation with me, or talk to your dog trainer about safety layers that can be used when working with multiple dogs. Never do this if any one of your dogs has even a hint of resource guarding tendencies.  Instead, either take your dogs for solo sniff walks or do scatter feeds back at home in separate spaces.

Sniff Walk Adventures
Watching the World Go By.

Remember, this is your dog’s walk.  You are on his clock and he gets to set the agenda.  Go with the flow, enjoy the sights and sounds of nature, take the opportunity to catch up on podcasts or listen to an audiobook … and enjoy !


Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Dog Training Manuals That You Can Trust

During 2020, the number of people bringing a new pet into their homes skyrocketed.  So much so, that Rescue Animals became TIME magazine’s Pet of the Year for 2020.  Now that the new shine has worn off, many owners are looking for training resources for their dogs and often turn to self-help dog training manuals.  Unfortunately, there are SO many such manuals out there that too many owners end up purchasing books that give outdated and inaccurate advice … often leading to abuse rather than training.  How do you choose the right dog training manual?

As a certified professional dog trainer (CPDT-KA), my first advice any new dog owner is to find a certified dog trainer in their area.  Dog training manuals are good resources, but nothing beats working directly with a professional.  How do you find a good trainer?  That is a whole blog post in itself, so I will direct you to this article on “How to Choose a Dog Trainer.”  

So, now you have hired a professional and you want to buy a good dog training manual.  With so many on the market, dog owners are flooded with options. How do you choose a dog training manual that will give you reliable and accurate information?

First, look for a book written by an expert in the field. I recently reviewed a dog training manual, Enlightened Dog Training: Become the Peaceful Alpha your Dog Needs and Respects, that was written by Jesse Sternberg, a mindfulness teacher, meditation instructor, and master dog trainer who has been working with animals for more than 30 years.  

Sounds great, right?  

Unfortunately, the dog training industry is not regulated, so anyone can proclaim themselves a “master dog trainer” and anyone who has had any contact with animals can say that they have “worked with animals for more than 30 years”.  There is no indication that the author of this book has any type of dog training certification.  Don’t let buzz words like “master dog trainer”, “dog whisperer” or “celebrity dog trainer” fool you! Remember that anyone can get themselves a social media account and start posting so-called dog training videos.  Beware of secret methods and techniques.  No training method is “fool proof” or “guaranteed”.  “Balanced” trainers may use treats, but also rely on punishment to turn your “disobedient” dog into a “respectful” and “obedient” dog. Look for trainers who are certified and/or have a degree in the field and use “positive reinforcement”, “LIMA”, “force free” or “fear free” methods. Go to their website or social media accounts to learn about their training philosophy.

In this blog, I have used quotes from Enlightened Dog Training as examples to demonstrate what you do NOT want from a dog training manual. Each quote is dissected for inaccuracies and poor dog training advice and is followed up with examples of excellent dog training manuals for the topic at hand.

“By mimicking the body language of an alpha dog as they seize assets or guard territory, we can counter-condition our dog’s excitement to any power object both quickly and calmly by leveraging a very simple law in the animal kingdom: the top dog always eats first, claims the asset with ease, and chooses the best resting spot with grace.”

“When a wolf hunt comes to an end, no pack member dares to show excitement around the spoils, nor do they even think about eating before the alpha male and female of the pack.”

In 1970, wolf expert David Mech introduced the world to the concept of “alpha” and “dominance” in his book, The Wolf:  Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species.  In 1999, he recanted this theory and even states on his website that this book is “currently still in print, despite my numerous pleas to the publisher to stop publishing it.”  

So folks, you can rest assured that your dog is not trying to exert his “dominance” over you or trying to be the “alpha.”  And he certainly does not need you to be his “pack leader” – since the current science on dog behavior tells us that dogs are not even pack animals!  To continue to perpetuate this ideology, which has resulted in the abuse of countless dogs at the hands of owners who unknowingly think that they are doing the right thing, is absolutely unethical.

“From the moment we bring a dog into our home, they expect us to behave like an alpha.”

TRANSLATION: Don’t allow your dog to feel safe in your home.


How to Teach a New Dog Old Tricks
by Dr. Ian Dunbar

Dr. Dunbar is a veterinarian and animal behaviorist who founded the Association of Pet Dog Trainers

“When I’m training a dog, I develop a relationship with that dog. He’s my buddy, and I want to make training fun.” – Ian Dunbar

Plenty in Life is Free – Reflections on Dogs, Training and Finding Grace
by Kathy Sdao

Kathy Sdao is an applied animal behaviorist (ACAAB) and professional dog trainer.

“We humans repeatedly fall into the trap of thinking that power and control are what successful relationships are about. On deeper reflection, we can see that in our best relationships we communicate clearly and easily … In the long run, communication trumps control.” – Kathy Sdao

“Take 10 conscious breaths. Slowly leash your dog, and tether them to something in front of them. Form a lasso with the second leash, placing it around your dog’s hindquarters, and fasten it to another fixture behind them. This gentle restraint will keep your furry guru standing still and safe. Now it’s time to begin the working meditation of grooming your dog with love.”

TRANSLATION: Securely restrain your dog so that she cannot move away when you advance on her with scary tools.

A BETTER WAY: Teach your dog that grooming is fun.


Cooperative Care: Seven Steps to Stress-Free Husbandry
by Deborah A Jones, Ph.D.

Deb Jones has a PhD in Psychology and is a legend in the dog training world.  She also runs a fantastic Facebook group on the topic called “Cooperative Care with Deb Jones”.

“Be the turtle.” – Deb Jones.

(… meaning slow and steady wins the race)

“The suddenness of my assertive touch sobered her. Instinctively, she knew it was time to surrender, because making contact on the nape of a dog’s neck is a familiar connection point communicating status and authority.”

“Instinctively, I placed what I call my “Kung Fu Finger” gently on the scruff of his neck. When we touch our dogs on the nape of the neck, we remind them that we are the authority. This is where their mother picked them up when they were young and where aggressive dogs target their attacks.”

PLEASE NOTE: You are NOT a dog – nor are you your dog’s mother. This is not you communicating your status and authority. This is simply you using body language signals to communicate aggression and instill fear in your dog.

“After your dog retreats as a result of your intensified, fear-generating actions, place the bowl on the floor between your feet. This is known as the Asset Ownership position.”

TRANSLATION: This is you, behaving like a lunatic.

ANALOGY: You arrive at your favorite restaurant and order your favorite dish. The waiter brings your meal and proceeds to set it on the table and stand over you, arms crossed and staring menacingly down at you. He continues to hold this stance, never speaking until you back away from the table. Only then, does he step back and say “Enjoy your meal.” Does this sound like the behavior of a sane individual?? Would you ever go back to that restaurant?

“Trust the process. Be patient, and remain in the asset-guarding position because the fun part of the training session has only just begun. Now that you have established ownership over the object your dog desires, they will not attempt to snatch it unless you lose focus and become distracted. Observe your dog over the next 10 minutes or so as its attention becomes single pointed on the hot dog (the object of their meditation). Notice as your dog progresses through increasingly relaxed positions, organically searching for stillness in their body.”

TRANSLATION:  Stand over your dog’s bowl and continue to intimidate and bully your dog with your aggressive stance and delight in his efforts to use appeasement gestures to beg you to stop aggressing towards him. Can you imagine how a dog must feel after 10 minutes of this treatment?!?

NOTE: If your dog is looking away, panting, lifting a paw, laying down or rolling over, it can generally be translated to a dog that is worried, confused or scared.

Check out my blog on body language and this great Body Language video by The Family Dog.  


Doggie Language: A Dog Lover’s Guide to Understanding your Best Friend
by Lily Chin

Lili Chin creates educational artwork for veterinarians and dog trainers. This little book is an excellent reference on how to interpret your dog’s body language

On Talking Terms with Dogs: Calming Signals
by Turid Rugaas

Turid Rugaas is a dog trainer and behaviorist in Norway. She is world-renowned for her work with calming signals in dogs – body language that dogs use to help calm themselves and others in stressful situations.

“We need to learn to understand the language of dogs so that we can understand what our dogs are telling us. That is the secret of having a good life together.” – Turid Rugaas

A Kids’ Comprehensive Guide to Speaking Dog!: A fun, interactive, educational resource to help the whole family understand canine communication.
by Niki Tudge

Niki Tudge is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant and the founder of The Pet Professional Guild – the Association for Force Free Pet Professionals.

“Keep future … generations safe by learning to “speak dog!””

“An eagle can swoop down and catch prey when it least expects it, so be like the eagle, and catch your dog in the moment it makes an indoor potty. In this moment, snap your fingers or make a gently conflict-seeking sound, followed by direct eye contact. This action is the “bad cop” moment, and the forbidden angle clearly communicates “no.” Don’t feel sad or think your puppy will get mad at you. Remember, fear is a normal emotion and animals don’t relate to it like we do.”

TRANSLATION: Take a puppy who has been on this earth for all of 8 to 10 weeks and set him up for failure. Wait for him to have an accident in your house and then swoop in to scare the living daylights out of him. Is this the stance that anyone would choose to use when potty training their child?!?

A BETTER WAY: Set your puppy up for success!! Take him out to potty every hour or two and reward him generously when he potties outside.


The Puppy Primer by Patricia McConnell, Ph.D.

Patricia McConnell has a Ph.D. in animal behavior and is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant.  Her blog, The Other End of the Leash, is filled with training advice and wonderful stories about her dogs.

“We dog lovers share a kind of Zen-like communion with our dogs, uncluttered by nouns and adverbs and dangling participles. This connections speak to a part of us that needs to be nurtured and listened to, but that is so often drowned out in the cacophony of speech. Dogs remind us that we are being heard, without the additional weight of words. What a gift. No wonder we love them so much” – Patricia McConnell

Perfect Puppy in 7 Days: How to Start Your Puppy Off Right
by Dr. Sophia Yin, DVM

Sophia Yin was a veterinary behaviorist and dog trainer

“Instead of using coercion, we can learn to lead like a leader in a dance.” – Dr. Sophia Yin (1966-2014)

Before & After Getting Your Puppy: The Positive Approach to Raising a Happy, Healthy & Well-Behaved Dog
by Dr. Ian Dunbar, DVM

Dr. Dunbar is a veterinarian and animal behaviorist who founded the Association of Pet Dog Trainers

“You can instill fear in your kids and get them to mind, but they won’t function better in the world and your relationship will suffer greatly.” – Ian Dunbar

Easy Peasy, Puppy Squeasy: Raising and Training a Happy Puppy by Steve Mann

Steve Mann is a professional trainer and behaviorist.

“If you have a dog that likes hanging out with you, 90% of your problems are gone.” – Steve Mann on developing the Rucksack Walk

“Puppies chew things to explore, learn, and soothe the pain of teething. How we act in these moments shapes their future behavior. Screaming or showing excitement, for example, quickly turn the act of teething into an interactive game.”

Absolutely true … but here is where the author gets it really wrong

“On the other hand, acting assertively and using Alpha tactics to guard the moccasin like a resource (a power object) would effectively stop Rambo from chewing them. Asserting yourself in this fashion to such a young pup, however, makes you come across as unnecessarily scary. It’s not age-appropriate until about six months of age.”

TRANSLATION:  Screaming and yelling like a lunatic is inappropriate, but using fear and aggression stances is okay as soon as your puppy is 6 months old. Seriously, I can’t even …..

NOTE: Puppies and dogs chew, dig and bark – that, my friends, is the nature of a dog.

A BETTER WAY: Puppy-proof your home … just like you would baby-proof your home. Make sure your puppy has plenty of appropriate chew toys and encourage him to chew appropriately by using toys that can be filled with food or treats.


Meet Your Dog: The Game-Changing Guide to Understanding your Dog’s Behavior
by Kim Brophey

This is THE most important book on the market right now.

Kim Brophey is an applied ethologist and certified dog trainer and behaviorist.  She has developed an amazing framework called L.E.G.S. to help owners understand and know their dogs. Learning includes your dog’s training and experiences; Environment is your dog’s external world – his home, his family, etc. Genetics is your dog’s inherited characteristics; and Self encompasses your dog’s internal world – his nutrition, health, etc.

“Learning is not an event; it is a constant process, and it is your responsibility to foster experiences that will be beneficial to her perpetual learning.” – Kim Brophey

Canine Enrichment for the Real World: Making It a Part of your Dog’s Daily Life
by Allie Bender and Emily Strong

Allie Bender and Emily Strong are certified dog trainers and behavior consultants.

Canine Enrichment: The Book your Dog Needs You to Read
by Shay Kelly

Shay Kelly is a certified canine behavior consultant. His “Canine Enrichment” Facebook page is filled with excellent ideas.

“A recall should never signal the end of something interesting. It should signal the beginning of something fabulous” – Shay Kelly

“Alphas are conscientious commanders. We don’t ask our dogs to do things; we tell them to do things. They listen to us and serve us with joy, because our actions mean love in all forms.

TRANSLATION:  Dogs are furry little minions who were created solely for our pleasure and amusement.

A BETTER WAY:  Dogs are sentient beings who have emotion. They feel fear, anger and pain. They are not here to simply do our bidding.


Bones Would Rain from the Sky: Deepening Our Relationships With Dogs
by Suzanne Clothier

Suzanne Clothier is a world class dog trainer, known for her ralationship-centered training methods.

One of the best books I have ever read about the bond between humans and dogs.

“One of the great pleasures of being with dogs is their spontaneous expression of what they are feeling” – Suzanne Clothier

The Other End of the Leash: Why We Do What We Do Around Dogs
by Patricia McConnell, Ph.D.

Patricia McConnell has a Ph.D. in animal behavior and is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant.  Her blog, The Other End of the Leash, is filled with training advice and wonderful stories about her dogs.

“Positive reinforcement is always, by definition, decided by the receiver, not by the “giver’.” – Patricial McConnell

Human Canine Behavior Connections: A Better Self Through Dog Training
by Marissa Martino

Marissa Martino is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant. Her “Paws and Reward” podcast is great source of information about how to foster a bond with your dog.

Wag: The Science of Making your Dog Happy
by Zazie Todd, Ph.D.

Zazie Todd has a Ph.D. in psychology and is a certified professional dog trainer. Check out Zazie Todd’s blog, Companion Animal Psychology.

“Don’t use punishment. It does not teach your dog what to do instead of the problem behavior and it interferes with the dog’s feelings of safety.” – Zazie Todd

“For example, when your dog snatches a dirty sock from your laundry for a game of tug, make your assertive noise, march toward them in a straight line, and watch as they drop the sock and offer you a Calming Signal.”

“Begin to imagine that you’re a lion, an animal no dog would dare challenge. Slowly stand up, and remain still; this is known as the Mountain Pose in yoga. Softly gaze at your dog, sending it the tiniest vibration of fear and inviting it for a challenge.”

TRANSLATION: The next time your dog grabs a sock and invites you to play, advance on him in aggressive posture to scare him into dropping the sock and cowering away from you.

A BETTER PLAN: Present a toy or treat to trade for the sock and then play with your dog.

NOTE: When your dog resists you taking something from him, he is simply engaging in what every other mammal (including humans) in the animal kingdom does – guarding a resource. While unwanted, it is perfectly natural behavior.

ANALOGY: Kerrie absolutely LOVES chocolate, but, alas, she is on a diet.  After a week of eating only healthy stuff, she just sat down to enjoy a slice of chocolate cake.  Her husband walks up, grabs her plate and starts eating her cake.  What would Kerrie do?  Well, I can tell you that she would not sit quietly while he eats the slice of cake that she has been looking forward to all week.  BUT, what if, instead, her husband walks up and says “Hey, want to trade that chocolate cake for this slice of chocolate cheesecake?”  Well, now we are talking!  

LESSON: Trade your dog for something of equal or higher value.


Mine!: A Practical Guide to Resource Guarding in Dogs
by Jean Donaldson

Jean Donaldson is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant and an instructor at the Academy for Dog Trainers.

“The sad objective of these trainers seems to be to reach the end of the dog’s life having dispensed as few rewards as possible. It’s difficult to explain why an animal trainer would strive to be as stingy as possible, give the evidence of how powerful and safe positive reinforcement is. Maybe it’s psychological.” – Jean Donaldson

Other excellent dog training manuals to choose:

  • Barking:  The Sound of a Language by Turid Rugaas
  • How Dogs Learn by Mary R. Burch and Bob Bailey
  • How to Behave So Your Dog Behaves by Sophia Yin
  • Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell and Know by Alexandra Horowitz
  • My Dog Pulls. What Do I Do? by Turid Rugaas
  • The Power of Positive Dog Training by Pat Miller
  • The Cautious Canine:  How to Help Dogs Conquer their Fears by Patricia McConnell
  • The Puppy Whisperer: A Compassionate, Nonviolent Guide to Early Training and Care by Paul Owens and Terence Cranendonk
  • Feeling Outnumbered?:  How to Manage and Enjoy your Multi-Dog Household by Karen B. London, Ph.D.
    • Karen London is a certified dog trainer and applied animal behaviorist.
  • Feisty Fido:  Help for the Leash Aggressive Dog by Patricia McConnell
  • Be Right Back!: How To Overcome Your Dog’s Separation Anxiety And Regain Your Freedom by Julie Naismith
    • Julie Naismith is a certified professional dog trainer and separation anxiety expert.  She runs a SA support group on Facebook called Dog Separation Anxiety Training Support with Julie Naismith.
  • I’ll Be Right Back:  How to Prevent and Treat Separation Anxiety by Patricia McConnell
  • The Midnight Dog Walkers:  Positive Training and Practical Advice for Living with Reactive and Aggressive Dogs by Annie Phenix
    • Annie Phenix is a certified professional dog trainer.  She has a reactive dog support group on Facebook called The Official Midnight Dog Walkers Group.
  • Control Unleashed books by Leslie McDevitt
    • Leslie McDevitt is a certified professional dog trainer and behavior consultant.

(Disclaimer:I received a complimentary advanced reader copy of “Enlightened Dog Training” through NetGalley. Opinions expressed in this review are completely my own.)


Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Toss the Food Bowl: Canine Enrichment with Food

Canine Enrichment with Food

The old saying “a tired dog is a good/happy dog” once meant that you should engage your dog in as much physical activity as possible to tire him out. At the time, we didn’t realize that we were just building a better athlete, while neglecting our dog’s mental health.

Research now shows that there are many other ways to “tire out your dog” and reduce boredom through various types of enrichment activities.

According to a 2009 study, “Non-domestic, stray and feral animals spend the majority of their time foraging for food. In addition, they must seek out or construct resting areas and avoid predators and other natural hazards. Pet animals on average spend less than 15 minutes per day eating because they do not have to forage for food. The majority of dog breeds were developed for some functional purpose (guarding, herding, hunting, etc.) yet few animals actually participate in these activities, leaving them with no constructive outlet for behavior patterns that are biologically generated.”  In fact, studies have indicated that “up to 60 percent of companion dogs don’t even get a regular walk.” (Canine Enrichment)

As early as the 1960’s, zookeepers were beginning to understand the need for enriching the lives of captive animals.  Increased enrichment has been shown to reduce stress in zoo and shelter animals, reduce reactivity and increase both physical and mental health.  In the 1970’s, Dr. Hal Markowitz, an early pioneer in captive animal behavior, defined the term enrichment as meaning “a synonym for ‘more like nature.’ ”  More recently, researchers in Sweden conducted a study with a group of beagles and found that “The experimental animals in our study were excited not only by the expectation of a reward, but also about realizing that they themselves could control their access to the reward.  These results support the idea that opportunities to solve problems, make decisions, and exercise cognitive skills are important to an animal’s emotional experiences and ultimately, its welfare.”

In a recently published book on this topic, Canine Enrichment for the Real World, authors Allie Bender and Emily Strong define the term as “Enrichment is learning what our dogs’ needs are and then structuring an environment for them that allows them, as much as is feasible, to meet those needs.”

Canine Enrichment

Canine enrichment is a broad term used to describe methods that enhance a dog’s life and meet its needs.  This includes its biological need for nutrition, shelter and medical care.  Besides basic husbandry, there are four other categories of enrichment – emotional, social, physical and mental.  

  • Emotional enrichment includes the love, trust and security of a safe and happy home.  Social enrichment is met through bonding and play with both humans and other dogs.  For human play, think things like fetch, tug, flirt poles, sprinkler games, bubbles and hide & seek.  
  • Physical enrichment is met through exercise.  E.g., hikes, parkour, sniff walks, running, playing, and many different types of dog sports.  
  • Mental enrichment is an activity whereby a dog’s mind is exercised through cognitive and sensory stimulation.  Mental and sensory stimulation can be accomplished through things like trick training, puzzles, music, nosework, play, new sights and sounds, etc. 

Dogs evolved as predators, foragers and scavengers.  Studies are showing us that 24/7 access to a full bowl of food day in and day out  is simply not healthy.  An alarming number of dogs are overweight or obese – which leads to health problems and a decreased lifespan. (For more information on the problem of obesity in dogs, visit this page.)  In addition, it is, simply put, boring.  Dogs don’t have much to do during the day – a quick potty break in the morning, a walk when you get home from work and, in between, hours of time with nothing to occupy their minds.  Bored dogs, just like bored kids, will invent ways to entertain themselves.  Boredom leads to behavioral problems – from barking and inappropriate chewing to separation anxiety and hyperactivity – and can even escalate to reactivity.

Food Enrichment

One easy way to meet many of your dog’s enrichment needs is through food enrichment.  Food enrichment satisfies your dog’s natural instinct to forage, slows down eating to aid digestion and reduce bloat, makes meal times more interesting for picky eaters, provides an energy outlet, reduces stress and anxiety, reduces inclination to chew, bark and dig, etc. In addition, it is a great way to keep your dog occupied after a surgery, injury or spay/neuter when physical activity must be limited.

Did you know that many professional dog trainers provide all of their dogs’ food through training?  These dogs never eat from a bowl.

You will hear us telling our clients to “toss the food bowl.”  We mean this quite literally.  Here are some ideas for how you can join us in tossing the food bowl and enriching your dog’s day through food.

How do I get started with food enrichment?
A good first step can be as simple as adding new flavors and textures to your dog’s meals.  Add a novel topper to your pup’s kibble – a scoop of yogurt, cottage cheese or pumpkin, cut up apple, pear or banana, freeze-dried liver bits or sardines.  When training with minimal distractions, try mixing some frozen green beans, baby carrots or blueberries in with your regular treats.

Now that we have your attention, let’s work toward tossing those food bowls altogether and letting your dog engage in food enrichment activities instead.

Worried about how much food your dog will be getting if you start adding more treats and additional food-related activities to your dog’s day?

Simply take all of the food that your dog is going to get during the day and put it in a single container. This is what you have to work with throughout the day. Use some for training and some for enrichment games. When using non-kibble additions, simply calculate this into the day’s portion and remove kibble to accommodate these new items.

Be Sure to Feed Only Dog-Safe Foods

Before starting any food enrichment activity, be sure that you have a list of foods that are not safe to feed.  Read all ingredients lists and consult your list of unsafe foods before using any new food type or new product brand.

Foods to ALWAYS Avoid!!

Grapes & Raisins
Macadamia nuts
Yeast dough
ANYTHING containing Xylitol

Xylitol is used as a sweetener, as a medication and as a way to prevent tooth decay and dry mouth.  It is HIGHLY toxic to dogs.  Be sure to check labels in your household for items containing xylitol and store them where your dog is not able to get to them.

Food Enrichment Activities

Food enrichment activities should always be done under close supervision.  Take the time to introduce your dog to new activities and teach him how to do it.  When your dog is finished with the activity, pick it up and put it away so that your dog does not destroy or ingest it.  “Kong” type toys are generally safe for unsupervised crate time.  If you are absolutely certain that your dog is not going to ingest things, some food dispenser toys and cardboard tubes/boxes could be another option for your dog.

Rotate activities and toys to keep things new and exciting for your pup.

If you have a multi-dog household, they should be separated for food enrichment activities.  This will reduce resource guarding and avoid possible fights.  Working alone allows your dog to slow down and really enjoy the activity – rather than having it be a race to finish first.  If you plan to do activities without separating your dogs, be sure that you are supervising them closely and watching for any body language that may indicate a problem.

Puzzle (Slow Feed) Bowls

Canine Enrichment with Food

Puzzle bowls are the most basic type of food enrichment.  They work well for dogs that are just starting out.  Outward Hound, Northmate and PAW5 all make puzzle bowls.  If you don’t want to purchase a puzzle bowl, try putting a ball or two in with your dog’s regular kibble to make an obstacle to work around or substitute something like a muffin tin.  You can even add water or diluted broth to their food bowl and freeze.

Food Stuffer Toys

Canine Enrichment with Food

Kong-type food stuffing toys are one of the most popular food activities for dog owners.   If you shop sales, you can pick up a variety of stuffing toys.  Once you have several, prepare  them ahead of time and pop them  in the freezer – then just pull one out anytime you need it.   Kong, Busy Buddy, SodaPup and West Paw are just a few of the companies that produce a wide variety of stuffing toys.

**Be sure to pick the correct size and type for your dog.

How to Stuff a Stuffer:

  1. If your dog is a beginner, start out by filling the cavity with kibble or dry treats and capping it off with some wet food, squeeze cheese or peanut butter.  The wet topper will keep your pup interested until they reach the kibble jackpot.  
  2. Once your pup has the hang of it, try filling with kibble that has been soaked in water or broth or just mix the kibble with wet stuff  (pumpkin, yogurt, baby food, peanut butter, etc.).  
  3. Pack it loosely at first and then start packing it tighter.  
  4. Finally, once you have an advanced dog, you are ready to start freezing it.  If you are not able to freeze the entire toy, you can freeze things in ice cube trays or small silicone molds and add this to your stuffer toy, along with kibble or ingredients.

What do I use to stuff a stuffer?

Canine Enrichment with Food

You can mix wet and dry ingredients – try peanut butter, apple sauce and banana chunks or yogurt, pumpkin and green beans or soak dry kibble till soggy and mix with cottage cheese and apple chunks.

For more ideas, go to the Kong Company – or simply search the internet for kong stuffing recipes.

DIY Stuffer Toy Enrichment Ideas

  • Hoof/Horn/Bone – If you are like me, you have a variety of hooves, horns and bones lying around the house. Why not try using them as stuffing toys.
  • Paper Towel or Toilet Paper Tube – You can put kibble in a tube and either fold the ends over or cap the ends with packing paper. You can also fill the tube with kibble, cap both ends with wet ingredients and then freeze.
  • Kitchen Items – muffin tins, ice cube trays, old measuring cups, etc.
  • PVC – Pick up a pvc elbow or tee, stuff it and freeze it – or just smear some peanut butter all around the inside surface.
  • Pupsicle 
    • Try putting a few treats/veggies/fruit into ice cube trays and fill with dilute broth. Freeze and then give a cube to your dog, add one to his bowl, put one in a kong or even float a couple of cubes in a bowl of water or even in a kiddy pool on a hot day.
    • Put treats/veggies/fruit and broth in a paper cup and stick in a milk bone or carrot that will act as your pupsicle stick. Freeze, unmold and serve.
    • Same concept, but with an ice cream container. Freeze and unmold in the yard on a hot day.  If you have a large enough container, you can even freeze a ball or other toys into the mold.

Licki Mats

Canine Enrichment with Food

Licki Mats are silicone squares with ridges that will hold food in the crevices.  Smear yogurt, peanut butter or pumpkin in the recesses, stick in some kibble, cut up fruit or veggies and either feed as is or freeze.  You can use anything with a textured surface as a licki mat – silicone ice cube trays or candy molds, a grease spatter guard, silicone hot pads, etc.

Scatter Feeding

Dogs are natural foragers and scatter feeding is a perfect way to tap into that instinctive behavior.  This is as simple as taking a portion of your dog’s kibble and scattering it in the yard or on the floor and let him sniff it out.   Generally, scatter feeding can be done with multiple dogs in the same space.  However, be sure that you keep an eye on your dogs’ body language for any signs of tension. It is always safest to start by separating the dogs with something like an x-pen until you are confident that there will be no fighting

Variation on Scatter Feeding:  Change things up by putting your dog in another room and then set up a scatter trail.  Start near the doorway that your dog will enter and make a trail of treats to lead your dog to another area or room where you have done a scatter or placed a stuffer toy. Another easy idea that you can do while watching television in the evening: Grab your dog’s dinner and toss it a couple of pieces at a time around the room and ask him to “Find It”.

Snuffle Mat

Snuffle mats come in many shapes and sizes and satisfy your dog’s need for foraging and mental stimulation.  A standard snuffle mat resembles a rug with very long shag.   The idea is to tuck kibble or treats down into the mat and then let your dog snuffle around to find them.

To start out, tuck a few pieces of kibble into the mat and scatter some over the top.  Once your pup understands how the game works, you can hide the kibble deep down in the snuffle mat.  A lot of dogs will try to disassemble the mat to see if there are any stray treats hiding deep inside.  If you have such a pup, be sure to pick up the snuffle mat as soon as your dog has finished the game and put it away for next time.

Variations on the Snuffle Mat:  You can turn a basket with holes in it into a snuffle basket.  Take a few leftover pieces of fleece, roll a few pieces of kibble or treat up in them and put those in a box.  Stuff the rolled up pieces of fleece into a Hol-ee Roller ball.

Make Your Own Snuffle Mat
A simple snuffle mat can be constructed in an evening.

– plastic sink mat
– 1-2 fleece blankets or about 1 ½ – 2 yards of fleece
– scissors or rotary cutter

Cut the fleece into strips, about 1″ wide and 8 to 10” long.  Thread a strip through each hole in the sink mat and tie it off.  Make sure that you have tied a strip through every single hole.  Viola! – snuffle mat!

Other DIY Snuffling Activities

Towel Roll

Canine Enrichment with Food

Lay out a towel, scatter kibble or treats all over it and then roll it up and let your dog unroll it.  To make it more difficult, try tying the roll in a knot, hiding it somewhere in the house or putting it in a box with the flaps closed.  You can also scatter treats along one half, fold the towel lengthwise, scatter more treats on top and then roll it up.

Variations on Towel Roll
 – Use an old pair of jeans and roll treats up in each leg.  Spread out a blanket, scatter kibble on top and then either accordion fold the blanket or grab the center and twist to create folds and swirls to hide the treats.

Cardboard Box

Simply take an empty cardboard box, toss in kibble or a few treats, and turn your dog loose.  Once your dog has the hang of this game, fill the box with packing paper, toilet paper or paper towel tubes or tennis balls.  You can use kibble or treats, veggies or fruit or even drop in a frozen stuffer toy.  To add a bit of a challenge, fold the bottom of a TP tube, drop in a few pieces of kibble, then fold the top to make a little packet. Toss these into the box. For even more of a challenge, close up the flaps of the box. Note: If your dog ingests this type of material, do not attempt this activity if you are not able to supervise your dog. This is a great activity for dogs who enjoy the act of ripping up or dissecting toys. The act of ripping up the box goes a long way in meeting the needs of these dogs.


Canine Enrichment with Food

Do you have a laundry basket or a plastic tub lying around?  Toss in some kibble and top with balls.  If you have a large enough container, toss in some empty water/soda bottles.  Be sure to take of the caps and plastic ring to remove any choking hazards.


Take a set of small plastic cones, dishes or plastic cups and set them up around the room.  Place kibble or treats underneath them and let your dog work out how to get to the treats.  Once she has the hang of it, try putting kibble under only a few of them, then let her figure out which ones are hiding the kibble.

Muffin Tin

Canine Enrichment with Food

Put some treats in the cups of a muffin tin and cover them with tennis balls, toys or even silicone muffin liners.  Once your dog has the idea, place the whole thing in a basket or a box the just fits the tin.  When the dog pushes the balls off the cups, they will keep rolling back over, making it a bit more challenging.  

Egg Carton

Put some treats in the cups of an egg carton and close up the carton.  To make it more challenging, you can tape the carton shut, roll the treats in bits of packing paper or scraps of polar fleece and then put those parcels in the egg carton cups.

Paper Towel and Toilet Paper Tubes

Turn these into little treasure packets by folding one end, dropping in a few pieces of kibble or treats and then folding the other end closed. You can hide these around the house or tuck them into boxes or baskets. If you dog tends to swallow large chunks, start with paper towel tubes for a larger packet and supervise so that you can teach him how to rip open the packet to get to the treasure. Do not use wet, oily or sticky food stuffs like hot dog, cheese or peanut butter as it encourages your dog to eat the cardboard that has that oily, sticky food residue on it.

Purchased Enrichment Toys and Puzzles


Canine Enrichment with Food

There is a huge variety of puzzles for dogs on the market. Many of them are labeled with a rating of how difficult/advanced they are.

Purchased Toys

There are many different food dispensing toys on the market:  Kong Wobbler, Buster Cube, Tug a Jug, Kibble Nibble, Twist a Treat, Kong Gyro … and the list goes on and on.  Some are very simple balls with a hole in it.  Others have a plastic maze inside or other mechanism to slow the dispensing rate and make the toy more difficult.  

If you want to slow down dispensing rate, you can use larger treats/kibble that don’t fall out as easily.  Some toys that come apart have enough space to put a ball inside.  As the toy tips, the ball will cover the hole occasionally and slow the dispensing of treats.

DIY Food Dispensing Toys

Water Bottle or Milk Jug

Remove the lid and plastic ring (these are choking hazards), wash out the bottle and then drop in a few treats.  Your dog will have a great time trying to get the treats out.

Bottle Tipping Activity

You will need a couple of empty milk jugs and a curtain/tension rod. Thread the tension rod through the jug handles and then hang the whole thing in a doorway at a level between your dog’s chest and eye level.  Drop some treats in the jugs and show your pup how to tip the jug to get treats to drop.  You can also use 2-liter soda bottles.  Drill two holes on opposite sides just above the label.  Then thread the tension rod through the holes.

Clothesline Veggies

Take a long piece of string, yarn or fishing line and string on a few chunks of fruit or veggies, spacing them out along the line. Hang this at your dog’s eye level (e.g., in a doorway, between cabinets or between trees in the yard) and let your pup figure out how to get them off the string.  Watch your dog closely to be sure that he does not eat the string!

PVC Roller

Canine Enrichment with Food

Pick up an 8 to 12” piece of ~2″ diameter PVC pipe and a couple of caps. Drill a few holes in the pipe, just a bit larger than your kibble/treats.  Sand the edges of the holes until there are no rough edges.  Put in some treats/kibble, cap the ends and let your dog roll it to release treats.  If you want to be a bit fancier, use the pvc pipe, one regular cap, a threaded end and a threaded cap.  You can use pvc glue to attach the regular cap on one end of the pipe and the threaded cap on the other.  Now you just need to unscrew the end, drop in treats, screw it back on and it is ready to go.

Hide and Seek

Fill multiple toys. Put your dog in another room, hide the toys, and then turn your dog loose.  This can work well when you leave the house for the day as long as you use toys that your dog can’t/won’t ingest.  If your dog will ingest toys, try doing a snuffle trail that leads them to a frozen kong or other safe toy. You could also hide pieces of kibble or treats inside boxes or other containers and place them around the room.

Sensory Maze or Obstacle Course

On a day when you can’t get out with your dog, try putting together everything you have learned and set up a sensory maze or obstacle course.  Use x-pens, boxes or pieces of cardboard to set up a maze or obstacle course for your dog and fill it with enrichment activities and obstacles.  

Using Enrichment as a Calming Activity

Food enrichment activities can also be used to calm your dog during stressful situations.  Counter conditioning works by associating something scary with something that your dog enjoys.  He will learn to like (or at least tolerate) the scary thing since it means something good is about to happen.  

Is your dog stressed during a bath?  Smear peanut butter on your bathtub surround so you dog can lick it during a bath.  They also make a licki bone with suction cups that sticks to walls, floors, etc.  Also try lining the tub with a towel before adding water, as some dogs are more scared of the slippery surface than they are of getting a bath.
Does your dog hate having her nails clipped?  Pull one of those frozen kongs out of the freezer and give them a lick or a treat after every nail.
Is your dog afraid of the vet?  Bring a licki mat along.  A groomer mit with rubber teeth serves as a good portable licki mat. 

A mentally enriched dog is a happy (and tired) dog, so Toss that Food Bowl!!

“Mental exercise tires a dog physically more than physical exercise does.”

Dr. Ian Dunbar

For a million and one other food enrichments ideas, check out of these facebook pages: 

Puzzle Dog

Canine Enrichment

DIY Canine Enrichment Toys

Beyond the Bowl – Canine Enrichment


Salonen, Milla, et al.  “Prevalence, comorbidity and breed differences in canine anxiety in 13,700 Finnish pet dogs”.  Nature,  vol. 10, article 2962 (2020).

Haug, Lore Il, DVM, MS, DACVB.  “Enrichment in dogs and cats”.  DVM360 Kansas City Proceedings, August 1, 2009.

Ragen McGowan, et al.  “Positive Affect and Learning:  Exploring the ‘Eureka Effect’ in dogs”.  Animal Cognition, vol. 17:  577-587 (2014).

Herron, M. E., T. M. Kirby-Madden and L. K. Lord.  “Effects of Environmental Enrichment on the Behavior of Shelter Dogs”.  Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 244 (6): 687-692 (2014)

Bekoff, Marc.  “Working for Food Enriches Dogs’ Lives and Break the Boredom”.  Psychology Today.  May8, 2019.

Bender, Allie and Emily Strong.  Canine Enrichment for the Real World.  Dogwise Publishing. (2019).

Kelly, Shay.  Canine Enrichment.  (2019)


Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.