4th of July: tips and tricks to help your dog get through the holiday

The 4th of July is almost upon us. Did you know that more dogs go missing on the 4th of July than any other day of the year?! The busiest day of the year at animal shelters across the country is July 5th. Studies show that upwards of 50% of dogs express fearful behaviors in the face of loud noises.

So, what can you do to help your dog navigate the 4th of July holiday?

Is my dog scared?

The first question we need to ask ourselves is this . . . Is my dog scared? Dogs who are afraid or stressed will exhibit some, or all, of the following body language cues:

  • Pinned back ears
  • Crouching or hiding
  • Clinginess
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Whale eye (whites of the eyes are showing)
  • Whining or barking
  • Pacing
  • Panting
  • Yawning
  • Lip or nose licking
  • Drooling
  • Urinating or defecating
  • Vomiting

Why is my dog afraid of loud noises?

The first thing to consider is that so many more individuals than just your scared pup are sensitive to loud noises such as fireworks and thunder . . . combat veterans, babies, autistic children, dogs, cats, guinea pigs, rabbits, horses, sheep, zoo animals, birds and other wildlife . . .

We all have a startle reflex that is activated by loud noises. Some of us have nervous systems that are more sensitive to these types of stimuli. If we know what is making that noise or it is expected, we can often regulate our reaction. But, dogs don’t have a gmail calendar or a weather app, so these phenomenon can take them by surprise and trigger their “fight or flight’ response.

Any type of past trauma associated with loud noises (e.g., your puppy was scared by his first fireworks experience, a veteran who experienced combat, etc.) will add to the severity of the reaction. In some cases, something as simple as an oven timer, a smoke alarm, a single firecracker bang or a dropped pan can send an individual into a panic attack – so imagine how a full 4th of July fireworks display is going to affect them.

Moreover, dogs and other animals find loud noises to not only be aversive, but painful as well. For example, while humans are not able to detect sounds above 20,000Hz, dogs can hear up to 60,000Hz. Some fireworks emit sounds above the level of human hearing, but dogs are able to detect those sounds.

In addition, we must consider the effect of trigger stacking on our dogs during the week leading up to the 4th of July. Trigger stacking is a phenomenon where a combination of multiple stressors, some might be quiet minor, occur over a short period of time and culminate in an extreme reaction.  If your dog is hearing a firework or two a couple of times each day for the week leading up to the 4th of July, he may already be trigger stacked before a single firecracker is lit on July 4th. By the time that the main fireworks display begins, your dog is way beyond his threshold.

Every individual has a threshold beyond which they will have a reaction. Each time an individual encounters a stressor, a certain amount of cortisol (a stress hormone) is released. Different stressors will create different amounts of cortisol in different individuals. If an individual event creates enough cortisol to cross the reactivity threshold, the individual will react. Stressors can also have an additive effect. It takes 5 to 8 hours for cortisol to dissipate from the blood stream. If an additional stressor occurs within that 5-8 hour window, the cortisol that is released from the second event is added to the cortisol still in the system from the first event . . . bringing the total level closer to threshold. So, if we encounter multiple stressors within a short period of time, they will have an additive effect and can cause the individual to go over threshold and have a reaction.

From my Trigger Stacking blog

Microchips and Identification

Be sure that your dog is never without some form of identification. Check that his name tag has your current contact information. Double check your microchip provider website to be sure that 1) you are listed as your dog’s owner and 2) your contact information is up to date. If your dog (or other pet) is not microchipped, I strongly recommend having that done as soon as possible. Dogs can slip out of their collar/harness if they panic and try to run away. If you dog’s collar is caught on something, the tags can be torn away. Simply put, microchips work!

A study of more than 7,700 stray animals at animal shelters showed that dogs without microchips were returned to their owners 21.9% of the time, whereas microchipped dogs were returned to their owners 52.2% of the time. Cats without microchips were reunited with their owners only 1.8% of the time, whereas microchipped cats went back home 38.5% of the time. (Lord et al, JAVMA, July 15, 2009) For microchipped animals that weren’t returned to their owners, most of the time it was due to incorrect owner information (or no owner information) in the microchip registry database – so don’t forget to register and keep your information updated.

American Veterinary Medical Association on Microchips

Other collar options are the GPS collars and attachments that allow you to track your dog’s whereabouts. Beware, however, that the cheaper models often do not live up to the range that is advertised. I have seen lost dogs with trackers that were supposed to work within 100 yards that didn’t actually ping the owner’s phone until the dog was less than 20 feet away.

Just in case you need to post lost dog flyers, always have current photos of your dog on hand. Take good shots from multiple angles to include any identifying markings, scars, etc. . . . close-ups and/or full body shots. If you have your dog clipped, have photos with both long coat and short coat – dogs often look very different before and after grooming!

Safe Confinement

  • Double check gates to be sure that they are securely latched BEFORE letting your dog out of the house.
  • Add a second layer of safety and take your dog out in the yard on a leash or long line. Dogs can be unbelievably agile and athletic fence jumpers when they are in a blind panic.
  • Be sure that your doors and windows are secured latched. A window screen is not going to hold a dog who is panicking and trying to escape.
  • Don’t leave your dog unattended in your yard – scared dogs may run through invisible fences, break tethers, climb or jump fences or dig their way out of yards.
  • Don’t take your pup to a fireworks display – leave him safe at home.
  • If you are hosting a party at your home, put your pup in his crate, in a locked room for the evening. There is no reason to chance someone leaving a door open or, worse yet, someone spooking your already frightened dog and getting bit.
Double leashing for an added layer of safety – attach 1 leash to the dog’s harness and 1 leash to the dog’s collar.

Safe Space

Your dog may already have a safe space – a spot in the basement, his crate, a particular bed or dog bed, under furniture, in a closet, etc. If not, you can create a safe space. The following are tips on how to create a safe space or enhance your dog’s current space.

Location

Find a quiet location where outside noises will be muffled. A location where you can block the flashes and lights from fireworks explosions is best – e.g., basement, a room/closet with no windows, a room with room darkening curtains, etc. can all be good options. If your dog likes his crate, you can cover it with a blanket that will help dampen sound as well as darken the space.

Be sure that your dog has access to plenty of clean water in his safe space. Panting or drooling will cause a dog to dehydrate quickly.

Background Noise

Adding some kind of white noise and/or soothing noise will add to the peaceful atmosphere that you are trying to create for your dog.

  • Box Fan
  • Bathroom fan
  • White noise machine
  • Radio turned to classical, country or reggae music
  • Youtube has several tracks with calming music playing in a 8-15 hour loop

Enrichment and/or Comfort Items

Enrichment activities

Licking . . .

Chewing . . .

Sniffing . . .

. . . 3 things that help calm a dog.

Give your dog her favorite type of chew, a stuffed Kong or Topple type of toy or some type of licki mat activity.

Comfort items

Once you have your dog’s safe space set up, fill it with items that your dog finds comforting. Does your dog have a favorite stuffy or blanket? Add an old t-shirt or sweatshirt that you have been wearing. Your dog will find your scent comforting.

Calming Aids

There are a lot of options on the market for calming products:

Thundershirt

Thundershirts® work on the same principle as swaddling a baby or giving a hug. The pressure causes the release of oxytocin and/or endorphins that have a calming effect.

You may have heard of Adaptil®. This is a pheromone product that mimics the pheromones produced by nursing mother dogs and have a calming effect on her puppies. Adaptil® comes in wall diffusers, sprays or collar form. It has been shown to have a calming effect on some dogs, so it is definitely something to try.

There are many types of nutraceutical products that purport to act as calming agents. A nutraceutical is a supplement or food additive. These products are not regulated by the FDA, so they are a “buyer beware” type of product. You must do your research to determine if the product you have purchased contains the ingredients on the label. They can also be extremely expensive. There is anecdotal evidence that products such as; July 3rd, Rescue Remedy, calming chews, cbd oil, etc., do calm dogs BUT there is little to no scientific evidence to back up these claims. I am not saying that they won’t work for your dog – just be aware.

The other option, and the one that I would highly recommend looking into TODAY, is some type of pharmaceutical prescribed by your veterinarian. Pharmaceuticals can be used as a situational calming medications that will enable your dog to cope with his noise phobia. There are many different types of situational medications and your vet will help you choose the one that is right for your pet. If you do go this route, be sure that you follow the directions for dosage and administration on the bottle. Some of these drugs need a 1- to 2-hour onboarding window before they will take effect – meaning that if the fireworks show starts at 9pm, you will need to give the medication at 7 or 8pm. Others, however, take effect much faster. The length of effectiveness also varies, so be aware of this so that you are re-dosing properly.

Comforting your dog

Contrary to what you may have heard or read, you cannot reinforce fear. So, by all means, go ahead and cuddle your dog if he is asking for comfort.

Never punish your dog for being afraid or try to force/flood them into just “getting used to it”.

It is true that you can make your dog more afraid than he already is, by doing something yourself that scares him, by forcing him into situations that scare him already or by being afraid yourself. Emotions are contagious, so if you want your dog to be afraid of thunder, then be afraid yourself! But you’re not going to make him more afraid of storms if you stroke his head and tell him it’s going to be okay.

Dr. Patricia McConnell

Prepping for the 4th of July

  • If you will be giving medication, be sure that you have your dog’s prescription(s) filled and ready to go.
  • Follow the directions to be sure that you are administering any medications or supplements correctly and in a timely fashion. You don’t want to realize 5 minutes before the big fireworks display is set to begin that you should have given your dog his medication 2 hours ago.
  • Fill and freeze your enrichment activities ahead of time.
  • Make sure that your dog’s safe space is set up and ready to use.
  • Take your dog out early in the day for some physical exercise.
  • Double leash your dog anytime you are outside your house or fenced yard. You can use two leashes (or a double-ended leash) and hook one leash to your dog’s harness and the other to his collar. That way, if a he hears an early firework and backs out of one, he is still attached to you by the other.
  • Make sure to take your pup out for a potty break before fireworks begin as he may not want to go out afterwards.
  • For highly fearful dogs who refuse to go outside during the day, you can create a doggie litter box that you can set up in your garage, mudroom or basement.

What about July 6th . . . and 7th . . . and 8th . . .

Where am I going with this? Remember trigger stacking? Well, If your dog was trigger stacked and stressed out in the days leading up to the 4th of July, how do you think he feels in the day or two that follow that big 4th of July fireworks display?!?

Remember, cortisol takes time to clear out of your dog’s system AND additional stressors will have an additive effect on your dog’s blood cortisol levels. Also keep in mind that your neighbors are going to continue to light off a firework or two in the days after the 4th. Each time a firework goes off, or a car backfires, or you drop a book, or there is a thunderstorm, your dog is going to continue to trigger stack. So what . . . well, if you have a reactive dog or a fearful dog, remember that trigger stacking can make all of their behavior issues worse . . . to the point of an increased incidence of aggressive behaviors and bite incidents during this time period. I recommend that you continue to follow the “day of” instructions for the first few days after the 4th. It is better to be safe than sorry.

Training for Next Year

What do you need to get started so you are ready to the NEXT 4th of July?

  • A recording of fireworks (or other scary sound like thunder, loud trucks, etc) with music and one without
  • Plenty of high value treats or high value toy
  • Time, Patience and plenty of Enthusiasm

You can purchase sound recordings created specifically for desensitizing dogs to noises. iCalmPet has CDs that combine classical music with thunderstorms, fireworks or city sounds. You can find similar tracks on YouTube as well – or you can simply record the sounds yourself.

Training Process

The music and sound tracks are created to present the noises quietly at first, then progress to simulate noises that are closer and closer to you and with smaller and smaller intervals between. The idea is to play these tapes at the easiest level and at a volume low enough that it appears that your dog does not even notice. As you see your dog easily coping at the current level, you are ready to increase volume and/or move to a more difficult track.

This is all that some dogs will need. Many others, however, will need a bit more help making positive associations with loud noises. This is where your recording of just loud noises (no music) will come into play.

  1. Start at a very low volume. We want to start where the dog is just noticing the sound. Play the sound and feed your dog a high value treat or reward with a game of tug, etc. Repeat this several times.
  2. Let’s put a label on it. You can call the loud noise anything you choose, but I would recommend choosing a label that you will remember to use for every loud noise. For example, if you choose “Boom”, then any and every loud noise is now “Boom”. We are trying to generalize the label to mean that any loud noise is a “Boom” that predicts good stuff.
  3. Now the steps become: Sound . . . Boom . . . Feed Treat and Celebrate. Repeat this several times.
  4. Keep treats on you during training so that you are ready if the real deal happens unexpectedly!
  5. Do several repetitions of Step 3 each day.
  6. As your dog becomes more comfortable, you can begin to increase the volume of the sound.
  7. You should also begin to vary the reward and location of the reward.
  8. The Final Sequence: Noise . . . Boom . . . run to the treat cupboard/refrigerator . . . Feed Treat or Play & Celebrate Enthusiastically.
  9. Now you are ready for the real thing.

NOTE: Order is important! Be sure that your dog hears the noise BEFORE you label it and feed treats. If, for example, you see a flash of lightning and begin feeding before you hear the thunder, you risk reversing the association. Instead of seeing noises (thunder) as predicting good things (treats), your dog instead associates treats as predicting scary noises are about to follow.

Teaching positive associations with loud noises is pretty straight forward when it comes to noises like trucks, dropping pots/pans, etc. It is impossible, however, to simulate atmospheric changes and odors that accompany fireworks and thunder. Large fireworks are accompanied by sound, flashes of light and burning smells. Whereas thunder is preceded by changes in barometric pressure and humidity that dogs detect, as well as their keen ability to smell rain and hear thunder long before we are able to do so. This process can take a long time with these types of noises. So, the moral of the story is . . . start today so that you and your dog are ready for NEXT year!

Kerrie Hoar, CPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, LFDM-T/L, FFCP
Kerrie Hoar, CPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, LFDM-T/L, FFCP

Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and licensed family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

“Aggressive Dog”: Reframing Owner Mindset

One of the keywords on my website is “aggressive dog” . . . what do you really mean when you say that you have an “aggressive dog”? Are you saying that you truly have an aggressive dog or that you have a dog who is using aggressive behaviors in certain situations?

Aggression is “an act that is performed with intent to cause harm” (depending on which resource your consult). I would argue that the vast majority of people will never see an aggressive dog in their lifetime. However, I regularly encounter dogs who are performing aggressive behaviors in order to change their circumstances . . . and in almost every case, the dog is trying to ask for space.

Growling, snapping and snarling are efforts to avoid a conflict, not start one.

~ Dick Russell

Are the dogs in this video performing aggressive behaviors? Yes!!
Are they aggressive dogs? No!!

This video actually depicts ritualized aggression being performed by two Great Pyrenees dogs, a type of livestock guardian dog (LGD). LGD’s have been selectively bred for thousands of years (dating back to the early Romans) to guard territory Their Genetics have been heavily influenced by humans selecting for dogs who will guard their flock from predators by instinctively reacting to any unfamiliar beings who enter their territory.

What happens when we take a LGD breed and plop him into the middle of suburbia? You guessed it – he will guard his home from “intruders”. Unfortunately, the “intruder” in his eyes may look like the UPS or FedEx delivery person, the cable repairman or a visiting friend or relative in your eyes.


TRIGGER WARNING!!! This video shows a dog bite at 0:10.

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shorts/qLVbXVDWEBA
httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shorts/qLVbXVDWEBA

Is the dog in this video performing aggressive behaviors? Yes!!
Is he an aggressive dog? No!!

The dog in this video has been trapped and forced to escalate to biting. No one is listening to the abundance of subtle signals telling the humans that he is not comfortable. Is it okay that the dog is biting a child – obviously not. However, it is not malicious. Given the number of signals that the dog is displaying in a desperate attempt to communicate his stress, the bite is not unexpected either.

This dog is actively Learning that nothing short of a bite is going to convince his owners to stop. His Environment is impacted by the fact that his small size (Genetics) allows for him to be easily wrapped in a towel and forced to sit on a person’s lap for petting. His internal environment (Self) is being overwhelmed by stress hormones as his fear increases.

One of the quickest ways to get your dog not to trust you is to keep overriding your dog telling you he does not feel safe. 

~ Suzanne Clothier

As a Licensed Family Dog Mediator®, when I see clients whose dogs are performing aggressive behaviors, our first step is to discuss the dog’s L.E.G.S.®. In other words, how have the dog’s Learning experiences, Environment, Genetics and Self (the dog’s internal environment) played into the current situation. Next, we look the circumstances under which the dog is performing the behaviors, as well as warning signals. Finally, we develop a plan for the family that involves: safety and management protocols; realistic goals; and/or reward-based training techniques aimed at addressing the root cause rather than simply suppressing or masking the behavior.

While I have yet to encounter a dog that I would label a truly aggressive dog, I have seen dogs that are not safe. These dogs may, therefore, be candidates for behavioral euthanasia due to an inability to provide balance between the dog’s L.E.G.S®.

Beneath every behavior there is a feeling. And beneath each feeling is a need. And when we meet that need rather than focus on the behavior, we begin to deal with the cause, not the symptoM.

~ Ashleigh Warner

What’s in a label?

Labels can be damaging when they affect how we view the individual to which we have affixed that label. When we use the label, “aggressive dog”, we tend to focus on his negative behaviors. We tell ourselves that the dog is doing this on purpose . . . to spite us . . . that he can stop any time . . . that he knows better . . . We are more easily frustrated or angered by our dog’s outbursts..

Instead, let’s remember that the dog is simply performing aggressive behaviors in response to some other factor; such as, fear, stress, pain or frustration. This helps us feel empathy towards our dog , . . understand why he is acting this way . . have more patience . . . to listen when he is speaking through subtle signals. We begin to understand that “our dog is not giving us a hard time – he is having a hard time“. We are more likely to take a gentler, kinder approach . . and to advocate for our dog when the need arises..

Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, LFDM, FFCP
Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, LFDM, FFCP

Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Trigger Stacking

I am afraid of snakes (ophidiophobia).  The biologist in me finds snakes fascinating; however, when I encounter one, my emotions take over. I live close to a nice trail system looping through a marsh that is home to tons of wildlife – including a variety of snakes. Fortunately for me, I don’t see snakes very often, but ….

Imagine if you will . . .

One sunny afternoon, my husband and I decide to take the dogs for a long relaxing walk through the marsh.  Just as we start up the trail, I see a snake.  I jump and give a small shout . . . but, I haven’t seen a snake in the marsh in such a long time, so let’s soldier on and not let it ruin the walk.  

Just a few hundred yards farther down the trail, I think I see another snake. No! However, as we get closer, I realize that it’s just a stick. Phew! We continue walking, but I find myself spending more and more time scanning for snakes and less and less time enjoying the scenery.  

A little way beyond the halfway point of our loop, there is a rocky area that looks like a perfect spot for a snake to sun itself.  I approach with my eyes riveted to the rocks and, sure enough, there is a snake – a little snake, but still a snake.  Ugh!  Now I am really feeling the stress.  Not only do I have to walk past that snake, but I am sure there are others hiding amongst the rocks.  

What now? While I could turn around, it will take longer to go back than it will to just keep going.  So here I am – feeling panicky and stuck.  Why didn’t I just turn around when I saw that first snake?!  

With no other optional this point, I continue on, but what started as a nice relaxing walk has turned into a forced march. I am no longer enjoying myself. Instead, I am agitated and on high alert, scanning all around me and imagining the worst.  As a consequence, I find myself walking faster and faster to just out of the marsh as quickly as possible.

When my husband innocently asks me to slow down a bit, I lose it.  I mean, I really lose it. To everyone’s surprise, including my own, I have turned into a raving maniac, yelling at him for even suggesting that we take the walk in the first place. The tears are close to surfacing . . . there is still a couple hundred feet of trail and there are sure to be more snakes.

YIKES!! Where did the rational adult go?  You know, the one who KNOWS that a little garter snake is not going to kill her . . . the one who finds snake anatomy absolutely fascinating . . . the one who has never even had a bad encounter with a snake to create such an irrational fear . . . the one who keeps saying that she just needs to get over this fear of snakes . . .  

Reason and common sense clearly lost the battle to fear and panic . . . and the fight or flight response took over. Fear and anxiety function in a very similar fashion in the canine brain.  So, if you will, take a moment to insert a dog afraid of other dogs into this story and I think you can imagine how what started out as a relaxing walk could quickly turn into a nightmare for your dog.

While you most surely understand this type of phobia, you may be wondering something … why was it the innocent comment that sent me over the edge – and NOT the sight of the first or the second snake?  

The answer is TRIGGER STACKING.


What is trigger stacking?  

Trigger stacking is a phenomenon where a combination of multiple stressors, some might be quiet minor, occur over a short period of time and culminate in an extreme reaction. 

Every individual has a threshold beyond which they will have a reaction. Each time an individual encounters a stressor, a certain amount of cortisol (a stress hormone) is released. Different stressors will create different amounts of cortisol in different individuals. If an individual event creates enough cortisol to cross the reactivity threshold, the individual will react. Stressors can also have an additive effect. It takes 5 to 8 hours for cortisol to dissipate from the blood stream. If an additional stressor occurs within that 5-8 hour window, the cortisol that is released from the second event is added to the cortisol still in the system from the first event . . . bringing the total level closer to threshold. So, if we encounter multiple stressors within a short period of time, they will have an additive effect and can cause the individual to go over threshold and have a reaction.


How does trigger stacking affect fearful or reactive dogs?

We often talk about threshold when working with dogs who are overly sensitive and vigilant about their environment . . . specifically we talk about the importance of keeping them under threshold. Why? Because when these dogs go over threshold, they respond with explosive actions and lose all sense of reason, along with the ability to think. They cannot learn when they are in this kind of mindset.

Trigger stacking can be a major concern with these dogs. Let’s look at an example that will demonstrate how multiple stressors can affect a sensitive dog.

Scruffy and his owner are out for a walk and come upon a woman pushing a baby stroller – something that is completely new to Scruffy.  As the stroller passes by, Scruffy’s owner notices that Scruffy is yawning and ducking his head away from the stroller.  He can’t possibly be tired ….

A few blocks later, a loose dog runs out of his yard and starts barking at Scruffy. Scruffy cowers, moves behind his owner and starts licking his lips. The loose dog’s owner calls him away. Since Scruffy didn’t growl or bark at the loose dog, his owner assumes that it wasn’t a big deal, so they continue on their walk.  

While Scruffy’s owner is at work, a pollster stops by the house, rings the bell and leaves a flyer on the door. Later, a delivery person rings the bell a couple of times and then leaves a package on the front step. Scruffy barks and growls each time the doorbell rings.

After work, the owner decides to take Scruffy out for another walk since he has been cooped in the house up all day.   As they walk past the next door neighbor’s house, their dog walks up to the fence.  Suddenly, Scruffy explodes – barking and lunging at the dog.  The owner is very upset and yells at Scruffy as he drags him away. “What the heck is wrong with you?! You see that dog every day! You never act like that!”  


Trigger Stacking and the Ladder of Aggression

The graphic below shows the way that canine body language advances from very subtle gestures to overly overt actions as a dog becomes more and more stressed and uncomfortable . . . often culminating in a bite if the stressor is not removed.

In addition to influencing how your dog reacts to stressors that he may encounter on a walk, trigger stacking is all too often the impetus behind a dog bite.  Dogs do not bite “out of the blue”.  Though the people involved may not recognize it, there is always a reason behind a bite.  Dog bites are very often the result of someone not recognizing the body language that is indicative of the dog’s level of distress . . . until the dog advances to the level of using very overt signals such as barking, growing, snarling, snapping and biting.

Let’s take a look at another example. Jane called a dog trainer, clearly in distress. Her Chihuahua, Joey had just bitten her. According to Jane, she was simply trying to wipe off Joey’s paw when he growled and snapped at her. The bite caught her forearm and left a red mark. Jane could not understand why this happened since she wipes off Joey’s paws all the time. The bite just came “out of the blue”. During their first session, the trainer asked Jane to tell her everything she could remember about what Joey’s day looked like leading up to the bite. See if you can you recognize some of the signals that indicate that Joey was experiencing trigger stacking.

  • Joey had a veterinary appointment first thing in the morning. He doesn’t really like riding in the car, but since he is a little dog, Jane just lifts him up and pops him into the car.  He sat still and pouted all the way to the vet – never giving Jane any eye contact.
  • At the veterinarian’s office, Joey was faced with all of the sites and strong medicinal scents of the receiving area and crouched down in a corner. When they got to the exam room, Joey hid under a chair. He had his ears back and wouldn’t look at Jane.
  • Joey’s vet was booked, so he saw a new vet and vet tech.  He wouldn’t come out from under the chair, so Jane had to reach in and grab him. Since Joey wouldn’t sit still, the vet tech had to restrain him.
  • After a physical exam during which his teeth, ears and eyes were checked and his temperature was taken, Joey got a couple of vaccinations.  
  • While they were in the office, it had started to rain. As Jane and Joey ran across the parking lot to their car, a big dog in another car barked and surprised them both. 
  • Jane scooped Joey up and quickly popped him into the car before they both got soaked.
  • On the way home, Jane stopped off at a store. She had to leave Joey in the car – something he hates. But the weather was nice and cool and she just needed a couple of items, so he would be fine.
  • Joey started barking when Jane got out of the car and she could still hear him as she entered the store. When she came out, she could hear Joey barking as she approached the car. He was SO excited to see her. Silly boy, she was only gone for a few minutes.
  • On the way home, a car pulled out in front of Jane, she had to slam on the brakes. Joey slid off the seat, and then decided to just stay curled up on the floor.
  • When Jane and Joey arrived home, Joey walked through a couple of puddles on the way into the house. When they got inside, Jane set her bags down and grabbed a towel. She leaned over and took Joey’s leash off.
  • When she picked up his front paws to dry them off, Joey gave a bit of a growl and lifted his lip, but he does that sometimes so she kept going. When she grabbed his back leg to start drying his paw, Joey growled, spun around and nipped her arm.

Can you see all of these little triggers slowly adding up and how Joey was giving subtle signals throughout the morning in an attempt to tell Jane that he was feeling uncomfortable and stressed? This is a perfect example of how we humans miss the subtle communications that tell us when our dog is becoming increasingly stressed . . . and, how these stressors can have an additive effect on the dog. None of these stressors in and of itself was enough to cause a bite, but as they continued to stack, they moved Joey up the ladder of aggression. Unfortunately, we too often see only the end result and view it as a gross overreaction to a tiny incident.


What can we do to help our dogs?

  •  When Scruffy yawned as they passed the baby stroller and licked his lips when facing the loose dog, he was trying to tell his owner that he was uncomfortable with the situation.  Be sure that you know how to recognize even the very subtle signs of stress in your dog. My blog, Dog Body Language:  How to Speak Dog, is a great place to start.  If you would like to take a deeper dive, check out my Canine Body Language for Pet Parents webinar.  Norwegian dog trainer, Turid Rugaas, wrote a fantastic book on the subtleties of canine body language – On Talking Terms with Dogs:  Calming Signals , Lili Chin has a very informative little book called Doggie Language that is filled with graphics and Tricia Hollingshead’s Listen to Me is filled with color photos and fantastic information . . .
  • Mediate the intensity of the situation by controlling duration and distance with respect to your dog’s triggers. If you think that your dog might be getting trigger stacked, you can prevent outbursts by maximizing distance from triggers on your walk, go to a quiet place for a sniffari or even skip the walk and do some trick training, nosework or even a scatter feed in the yard instead.
  • Keep a journal of events that may be triggering to your dog and mediate the intensity of your dog’s encounters with his triggers in order to prevent over-threshold reactions and trigger stacking.

    Possible triggering events to be aware of:
    • Children
    • People ringing the doorbell
    • Grooming, nail clipping or other types of husbandry
    • A trip to the vet
    • A new object – a stroller, wheelchair, holiday decoration, etc.
    • A new location 
    • A familiar location that has changed – an empty park may be full of people, a change in season or weather has changed a familiar landscape
    • A car ride
    • Other dogs or people when out on a walk
    • A new pet in the home
    • Visitors in the home
    • Losing a member of the household – moves/is out of town; a pet/person passed away
    • A pet sitter or boarding
    • Any change to his normal routine
    • Pain or illness
    • Time of day – light and shadows can effect visibility
    • Loud noises – construction; thunder; fireworks; car backfiring
  • Don’t push your dog’s boundaries until he is ready.  If he is stressed by an event, take extra care with other possible triggers.   Decrease intensity and duration as much as possible and increase distance as much as possible.  There will be better days for reactivity training.  Right now, your priority is self-care for your dog’s mental health.
  • If you and/or your dog are struggling, contact a certified professional dog trainer whose training philosophy is grounded in positive reinforcement to help.
Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, FDM, FFCP
Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, FDM, FFCP

Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Dog Body Language: How to Speak Dog

Canine Body Language

“The bite came out of the blue.”

The truth is … our dogs are speaking and they are begging us to listen to them. Unfortunately, too many of us do not understand the subtle signals that make up dog body language. When we don’t see, or if we choose to ignore, our dogs’ subtle signals, they have no choice but to speak louder through growls, barks, snarls … and even bites.

Growls are good!

A growl is just your dog’s vocal way to tell you that he is uncomfortable and would like you to please stop doing what you are doing …

  • “I get anxious when you restrain me. Please stop hugging me.”
  • “It hurts when you pull on my matted fur. Please stop brushing me.”
  • “I don’t want to get in the car, it’s scary. Please stop forcing me.”
  • “I have arthritis and I hurt. Please stop petting my leg.”
  • “I just want to enjoy my dinner. Please stop sticking your hand in my bowl.”

We have to stop thinking of dogs as our own little furry puppets that must be happy no matter what we choose to do to them. Dogs are sentient beings that feel grumpy, scared, tired, etc. We need to respect those feelings and give our dogs the grace to choose to tell us “Not right now, please.”

A growl is not a personal attack on you …

… please don’t take it as such. How many times have you snapped at a family member who is pestering you when you have a headache or had a bad day at work or just want a bit of alone time? Your dog is simply trying to communicate in a way that you will understand.

Never punish your dog for growling.

The biggest mistake that we can make is to punish our dogs for growling. A dog that has learned that he will be punished will stop growling. As a result, rather than giving you this important warning signal, they will go from subtle signals, straight to a bite.

DOG BODY LANGUAGE

Dogs speak with their bodies. Sometimes our dogs’ emotions are written all over their faces, so it is easy to determine how they are feeling. For example, almost anyone can tell which of these two dogs is happy that you are approaching.

Most of the time, however, signs that a dog is uncomfortable are much more subtle. Does this dog want you to approach or move away? How can you tell? This blog post will teach you what subtle signals to look for and how to interpret dog body language.

Canine Body Language - stressed
I’m worried.

DOG BODY LANGUAGE: POSTURE

We can tell a lot about how our dogs are feeling by observing their posture and body position. A happy, relaxed dog has a loose, fluid posture.  

A dog that is anxious or unsure has a stiff posture.  

Canine Body Language - stiff, tense posture
Stiff, tense posture

If a dog’s posture stiffens when you approach, it is an indication that the dog is not comfortable. He is asking you to give him more distance. Similarly, crouching and/or leaning away are very clear indicators that you are too close.

PERSONAL SPACE

Humans, dogs and other animals all have personal space bubbles. The size of any individual’s personal space bubble is unique and dependent on many factors. Think about how you feel when someone invades your personal space.

Just like humans, dogs can get very uncomfortable when their personal space is invaded. Dogs will show their discomfort with subtle body language. If you don’t listen and give them space, they will do one of three things: freeze and hope you just go away, flee from you or, as a last resort, bark and lunge in order to make you move away. The inability to flee is why many leashed, crated and tethered dogs bark and lunge when people and dogs approach.

DOG BODY LANGUAGE: THE TAIL

Study your dog’s normal tail carriage or the normal carriage for his breed. A stressed dog will carry its tail high above its back or very low. – sometimes to the point of tucking it between the back legs. Docked tails not only impair a dog’s ability to express his feelings, but also make it difficult for other dogs (and people) to read his body language.

Canine Body Language - neutral tail carriage
Neutral tail carriage

“His tail is wagging, he must be friendly.”

Yes. A happy dog will wag its tail; however, an anxious or stressed dog will also wag its tail. Do not assume that a wagging tail is a signal that the dog wants to be petted. A relaxed dog will wag its tail in a wide, slow arc. A dog that is highly aroused will hold its tail high and wag its tail rapidly in a very small arch. Do not judge a dog by its tail wag alone. Always assess the entire dog.

DOG BODY LANGUAGE: THE EARS

Ear carriage changes with a dog’s emotions. Look at your dog’s normal ear carriage. When his ears move up and/or forward or if they drop down and/or back, he is feeling stress of some sort … anxious, unsure, concerned, etc..

Canine Body Language - floppy ears - neutral
Floppy ears – neutral

As with tail docking, cropping a dog’s ears make reading dog body language difficult for people and other dogs.

DOG BODY LANGUAGE: THE FACE

A dog’s face displays a wealth of communication signals. The eyes, brows, mouth, tongue and even the whiskers will change with your dog’s emotional state. The signs of stress noted below can indicate that your dog is anxious, confused, concerned, frightened, etc. Regardless of the reason, when you see signs of stress in your dog, stop what you are doing and give him space.

THE BROW

Dogs will wrinkle their brow or raise their eyebrows when they are feeling stressed or unsure. This can lead to the classic “guilty look“. What this look really means is that your dog is feeling uncomfortable and unsure of a particular situation.

THE EYES

A relaxed dog’s eyes are generally more of an almond shape and have a soft look. An stressed dog may exhibit any of the following:

  • wide and round eyes
  • dilated pupils (the black circle in the middle of the eye is enlarged)
  • whale eye (an arc of white showing around the edges of the eyes)
  • hard” eyes (more of a hard stare).
  • squinting – used to avoid eye contact
Canine Body Language - eyes - dilated pupils
Eyes – dilated pupils

THE MOUTH

A relaxed dog has a relaxed mouth – either open, often with tongue hanging out, or closed with loose, relaxed lips. A stressed dog will have a closed, stiff mouth. In these dogs, the lips will be tense as well – often forming a long straight line than may create wrinkles at the corner of the mouth. If pressed, the dog may lift their lips to expose their teeth. This may or may not be accompanied by a growl.

THE WHISKERS

The whiskers of a stressed dog will stick out prominently and be directed forward. The whisker bed will be raised (the area around each whisker will be very pronounced).

Canine Body Language - whiskers - directed forward with raised whisker bed
Whiskers – directed forward with raised whisker bed
Canine Body Language - Whiskers around nose eyes directed forward w/ raised whisker beds & “hard” eyes
Whiskers around nose eyes directed forward w/ raised whisker beds & “hard” eyes

DOG BODY LANGUAGE: CALMING SIGNALS

When dogs feel anxious or are presented with stressful situations, they will perform behaviors meant to calm themselves or diffuse the situation. These behaviors are called calming signals or appeasement gestures. Calming signals include things like paw lifts, lip licking and yawns. When a dog is unsure, you will often see her avoiding eye contact either by turning her head to the side or by averting her eyes. Consequently, we often see calming signals when taking photos as pointing a camera/phone at a dog can make them uncomfortable.

STUDY THE ENTIRE DOG – NOT JUST ONE BODY PART

Some dogs will present multiple signals. On the other hand, some dogs will present only one or two signals. Remember – always judge the entire dog – not just one body part. A dog may be wagging its tail, but … How is he holding his tail? How fast is it wagging? What about his eyes and ears? Is his mouth closed and tense or open and relaxed?

Even puppies are speaking to us through their body language.

Watch this great video on body language.

Dog Body Language: Quiz 1

Which husky looks happier to see you at his gate?

  • A. Signals: open relaxed mouth, neutral ears, soft eyes, whiskers directed forward; This dog is exhibiting relaxed body language.
  • B. Signals: stiff posture, body directed forward, closed mouth with lips set in a straight line, whiskers directed forward, ears set back and down, hard eyes, high tail carriage; This dog is exhibiting stressed body language.
Dog Body Language: Quiz 2:

Which of these dogs look happy to be the recipient of human attention?

  • A. Signals: relaxed posture, open relaxed mouth, neutral ears, soft eyes; This dog is exhibiting relaxed body language.
  • B. Signals: stiff posture with body directed backward, wide round eyes with whale eye (difficult to see with the blue eyes), furrowed brow, ears pinned down and back, closed mouth with straight lips, whiskers directed forward; This dog is exhibiting stressed body language.
  • C. Signals: loose, relaxed posture, relaxed mouth, neutral ears; This dog is exhibiting relaxed body language.
  • D. Signals: stiff posture, closed mouth with straight lips, airplane ears, head turned away, whiskers directed forward; This dog is exhibiting stressed body language.
  • E. Signals: crouched posture, body directed away from the person, wide round eyes with whale eye, prominent whisker bed, closed mouth with straight lips, furrowed brow, ears pinned back; This puppy is exhibiting stressed body language.
  • F. Signals: stiff posture with body directed away from person, yawning, squinting eyes; This dog is exhibiting stressed body language.

The dogs in photos A and C are the only ones in this group with relaxed body language. Note that in both of these photos, the human is not constraining the dog and is respecting its personal space.

Dog Body Language: Quiz 3

Now, with your new knowledge of body language, how do you interpret this photo? Does the dog want you to come closer or move away? What body language signals are telling you this?

Canine Body Language - stressed
I’m worried.

This dog is saying: Move away.

Signals: Tense posture directed backward, ears are pinned back and down, head is turned away, whale eye, tense closed mouth; paw lift.

Dog Body Language: Quiz 4

Go back through the rest of the photos in this blog. What other stress signals do you see each dog exhibiting?

77% of dog bites happen with a family or friend's dog. Now that you know better, do better. "Stop the 77"

Dog Body Language: Quiz 4

Try out the new Family Paws Doggie Detective interactive body language tool.

RESOURCES

To learn more about dog body language:

  • Doggie Language by Lili Chin
  • On Talking Terms with Dogs: Calming Signals by Turid Rugaas
  • Canine Body Language: A Photographic Guide by Brenda Aloff
  • A Kids’ Comprehensive Guide to Speaking Dog!:  A fun, interactive educational resource to help the whole family understand canine communication by Niki Tudge
  • Family Paws
  • The Family Dog
Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, LFDM, FFCP
Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, LFDM, FFCP

Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Turn Your Dog Walk Into A Sniff Walk

What makes for a great dog walk?  Is it a power walk through your neighborhood with your Fitbit tracking your every step?  Nope.  That is YOUR walk.  What your dog wants is an opportunity to just go where he wants to go and do what he wants to do. The ideal ‘walk’ for your dog is a time to just run free … time to just “dog” … to roll in the grass, to sniff, to dig, to chase critters ….  The term decompression walk was defined by Sarah Stremming as “a walk where the dog is allowed freedom of movement in nature”. Decompression time for your dog has the same benefits as it does for us humans.  Studies have shown that sniffing actually lowers your dog’s pulse rate and reduces their stress. 

The best experience for any dog is time spent off-leash.  If you plan to allow your dog to run off leash, there are some very important things to consider before you head out the door:  

  1. Are there ordinances in your area about off leash dogs?  If so, make sure that you are going to off-leash friendly areas.  Don’t be the dog owner that lets your dog off leash in on-leash only locations.  
  2. Make sure that your dog has a bomb-proof recall before letting your dog off leash in an un-enclosed space.  Nothing good is going to come from this.
  3. Be aware and respectful of others.  Keep this in mind and prevent your dog from harassing others (remember that bomb-proof recall in #2). Not every dog wants to be your dog’s friend and not every person is comfortable around dogs … and they have the right to enjoy that space without being harassed by an off-leash dog.  

But, what if you don’t have off-leash zones in your area, your dog doesn’t have a solid recall yet or she isn’t good with strange dogs or people?

Sniffspot is an online service that lists private “dog parks” that can be rented for solo use.  These spaces may be as simple as someone’s backyard or they could be acres and acres of fenced land.  Sniffspot is growing, but you won’t find spaces in every location.

No Sniffspots available in your area? No worries.

Even if you can’t find a safe space for a true off-leash experience, you can still get many of the benefits of off leash time through a more controlled Sniff Walk, or Sniffari. A sniff walk is a walk during which your dog is allowed the freedom to be a dog while still safely controlled with a harness and long line.

Sniff Walk How-To’s:

Equipment:

  • Long line.  A long line is just a extra long leash that comes in lengths anywhere from 10 to 100 feet. They are great for training recalls, but make the perfect sniff walk leash. You can purchase a long line or simply make your own. Tie a clip to one end of a length of rope to hook to your dog’s harness. Then tie a loop at the other end for a handle.
  • Harness.  A harness is much safer than a collar for any walk.  Look for a harness that allows full range of motion.  For example, harnesses with a band across the chest restrict shoulder movement.
  • Hands free leash system (optional). A hands-free belt to attach your long line to works great to free up your hands. Now you can dispense treats or handle the line to keep it from getting tangled.
  • Treat pouch with treats or kibble.  If your dog has never been on a sniff walk, you may need to toss a few treats into the grass/bushes to encourage him and let him know that it is okay to sniff. Instead of treats, toss the food bowl and take your dog’s meal along to scatter feed in the grass.
  • Poop bags. Clean up after your dog. Do not allow your dog to damage/destroy private or public property – including digging, crushing plants, etc.

I do not recommend using a retractable leash for several reasons:

  First, they are dangerous.  Many a dog owner or bystander can attest to retractable leash injuries such as rope burns, cuts, and even amputations.  If you drop the leash, many dogs are terrified by the handle “chasing” them – making them harder to catch or, worse, causing them into run into traffic in an effort to escape.  Finally, our goal is a relaxing walk and retractable leashes maintain a constant tension on the line which is not relaxing for the dog.

How do you find a safe space for a Sniff Walk? 

 If you live in a rural area, you probably don’t need to look too far to find a wonderful enclosed space for you dog to explore.  But what if you live in a more urban area?  Here is how you can locate a safe place for a sniffari.

  1. First, set Google Maps or Mapquest to ‘satellite’ mode and type your home address into the search box.
  2. Next, look for green spaces within easy walking or driving distance. Yes, you may need to drive a bit to find a good location.  
  3. Once you have located some potential spaces, check each one to determine if it will fit your needs.  On the map below, I have marked potential green spaces in my area.  
  4. Check land ownership and local ordinances. 
    • The red zones on the map are great spaces, but, sadly, off limits to dogs.  Check your local ordinances for parks and cemeteries. If dog friendly, these make great sniff zones. 
    • The purple and blue zones are all dog-friendly possibilities.  The two largest purple zones are filled with fantastic nature trails.  However, I have reactive dogs and these trails are often narrow with few opportunities to allow enough space for other dogs to pass by without triggering reactions.  Since point of a sniff walk is to allow your dog to decompress, these areas are not good options for reactive dogs. Be sure to keep these kind of things in mind when searching for sniff walk spaces.
    •  The little rectangle towards the top of the map is a tiny dog park.  On occasion, I have been able to get this space all to myself, but it not always open and is quite small.
  5. So, that leaves the blue zone. This is a university campus and just happens to tick all th boxes.  
  • Dog friendly (allow dogs and safe)
  • Easy walk from home (or easily accessible by car)
  • Plenty of green space and interesting textures, surfaces and smells to explore
  • Plenty of space to allow my dogs to get the distance they need from triggers
  • Tons of great places to sniff

Throughout COVID many college campuses and other public spaces have been relatively quiet zones – a definite perk for those of us with reactive dogs.  When students and faculty are on campus, however, I simply time my walks for less active times of the day. In general, however, you won’t find owners out on sniff walks spending much time on the sidewalks. We are generally following our dogs across the lawns and checking out the bushes.  So it is not too hard to avoid the human crowds. 

Other great space options to check into:

  • Cemeteries
  • School campuses
  • Parks and playgrounds
  • SniffSpot
  • Office parking lots or industrial parks
  • Beaches and waterfronts
  • Quiet neighborhoods
  • Empty dog parks
  • Nature center
  • Visitor center or rest area
  • Picnic area or campground
  • Paths and trails (beware of narrow trails)
  • Golf courses
  • Private lands
  • Farms
  • Church grounds

*Be sure that you contact the property owner and/or check local laws and statutes before taking your dog onto private property.

So, now that we have the equipment and the space that we need, join us as we take our morning sniff walk!  

I choose to take our sniff walks in the morning and bring breakfast along in my treat pouch.  I use two-point attachment leashes – long leashes with clips at both ends and multiple rings to allow you to adjust the length of the lead.  These give me the versatility of having 4-foot leashes when walking through the neighborhood, and the ability to allow the full 8 feet of line for sniffing.

Sniff Walk Adventures
Hi Ho, Hi Ho, It’s off for a sniff walk we go!

Once on campus, I can let out the lines.  My 8-foot leashes don’t allow for as much freedom as a 15- or 30-foot long line. That said, they do allow me to take everyone out together and maintain control if we encounter groups of people on campus. It is also convenient for me to not have to carry along four separate long lines every day.  

Once I lengthen the leashes, the dogs are in charge.  

Sniff Walk Adventures
I think there is a bunny in here!
Sniff Walk Adventures
I’m sure it’s back in here somewhere!

We go wherever they take me and sniff whatever they want and for as long as they choose.  One exception: They are allowed to sniff the flowers, but not trample through the beds. 

Occasionally, I will toss out a handful of kibble in the grass for them to snuffle.  The dogs are in charge here as well. They choose the scatter spots by slowing down and looking back at me. Once they have finished their snuffling, we are off again.  

IMPORTANT

Do NOT try to scatter feed with multiple dogs in the same space without some prior training. Sign up for a consultation with me, or talk to your dog trainer about safety layers that can be used when working with multiple dogs. Never do this if any one of your dogs has even a hint of resource guarding tendencies.  Instead, either take your dogs for solo sniff walks or do scatter feeds back at home in separate spaces.

Sniff Walk Adventures
Watching the World Go By.

Remember, this is your dog’s walk.  You are on his clock and he gets to set the agenda.  Go with the flow, enjoy the sights and sounds of nature, take the opportunity to catch up on podcasts or listen to an audiobook … and enjoy !



Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, FDM, FFCP
Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, FDM, FFCP

Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.

Dog Training Manuals That You Can Trust

During 2020, the number of people bringing a new pet into their homes skyrocketed.  So much so, that Rescue Animals became TIME magazine’s Pet of the Year for 2020.  Now that the new shine has worn off, many owners are looking for training resources for their dogs and often turn to self-help dog training manuals.  Unfortunately, there are SO many such manuals out there that too many owners end up purchasing books that give outdated and inaccurate advice … often leading to abuse rather than training.  How do you choose the right dog training manual?

As a certified professional dog trainer (CPDT-KA), my first advice any new dog owner is to find a certified dog trainer in their area.  Dog training manuals are good resources, but nothing beats working directly with a professional.  How do you find a good trainer?  That is a whole blog post in itself, so I will direct you to this article on “How to Choose a Dog Trainer.”  

So, now you have hired a professional and you want to buy a good dog training manual.  With so many on the market, dog owners are flooded with options. How do you choose a dog training manual that will give you reliable and accurate information?

First, look for a book written by an expert in the field. I recently reviewed a dog training manual, Enlightened Dog Training: Become the Peaceful Alpha your Dog Needs and Respects, that was written by Jesse Sternberg, a mindfulness teacher, meditation instructor, and master dog trainer who has been working with animals for more than 30 years.  

Sounds great, right?  

Unfortunately, the dog training industry is not regulated, so anyone can proclaim themselves a “master dog trainer” and anyone who has had any contact with animals can say that they have “worked with animals for more than 30 years”.  There is no indication that the author of this book has any type of dog training certification.  Don’t let buzz words like “master dog trainer”, “dog whisperer” or “celebrity dog trainer” fool you! Remember that anyone can get themselves a social media account and start posting so-called dog training videos.  Beware of secret methods and techniques.  No training method is “fool proof” or “guaranteed”.  “Balanced” trainers may use treats, but also rely on punishment to turn your “disobedient” dog into a “respectful” and “obedient” dog. Look for trainers who are certified and/or have a degree in the field and use “positive reinforcement”, “LIMA”, “force free” or “fear free” methods. Go to their website or social media accounts to learn about their training philosophy.

In this blog, I have used quotes from Enlightened Dog Training as examples to demonstrate what you do NOT want from a dog training manual. Each quote is dissected for inaccuracies and poor dog training advice and is followed up with examples of excellent dog training manuals for the topic at hand.


“By mimicking the body language of an alpha dog as they seize assets or guard territory, we can counter-condition our dog’s excitement to any power object both quickly and calmly by leveraging a very simple law in the animal kingdom: the top dog always eats first, claims the asset with ease, and chooses the best resting spot with grace.”

“When a wolf hunt comes to an end, no pack member dares to show excitement around the spoils, nor do they even think about eating before the alpha male and female of the pack.”

In 1970, wolf expert David Mech introduced the world to the concept of “alpha” and “dominance” in his book, The Wolf:  Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species.  In 1999, he recanted this theory and even states on his website that this book is “currently still in print, despite my numerous pleas to the publisher to stop publishing it.”  

So folks, you can rest assured that your dog is not trying to exert his “dominance” over you or trying to be the “alpha.”  And he certainly does not need you to be his “pack leader” – since the current science on dog behavior tells us that dogs are not even pack animals!  To continue to perpetuate this ideology, which has resulted in the abuse of countless dogs at the hands of owners who unknowingly think that they are doing the right thing, is absolutely unethical.


“From the moment we bring a dog into our home, they expect us to behave like an alpha.”

TRANSLATION: Don’t allow your dog to feel safe in your home.

DOG TRAINING MANUALS TO CHOOSE INSTEAD

How to Teach a New Dog Old Tricks
by Dr. Ian Dunbar

Dr. Dunbar is a veterinarian and animal behaviorist who founded the Association of Pet Dog Trainers

“When I’m training a dog, I develop a relationship with that dog. He’s my buddy, and I want to make training fun.” – Ian Dunbar


Plenty in Life is Free – Reflections on Dogs, Training and Finding Grace
by Kathy Sdao

Kathy Sdao is an applied animal behaviorist (ACAAB) and professional dog trainer.

“We humans repeatedly fall into the trap of thinking that power and control are what successful relationships are about. On deeper reflection, we can see that in our best relationships we communicate clearly and easily … In the long run, communication trumps control.” – Kathy Sdao


“Take 10 conscious breaths. Slowly leash your dog, and tether them to something in front of them. Form a lasso with the second leash, placing it around your dog’s hindquarters, and fasten it to another fixture behind them. This gentle restraint will keep your furry guru standing still and safe. Now it’s time to begin the working meditation of grooming your dog with love.”

TRANSLATION: Securely restrain your dog so that she cannot move away when you advance on her with scary tools.

A BETTER WAY: Teach your dog that grooming is fun.

DOG TRAINING MANUAL TO CHOOSE INSTEAD

Cooperative Care: Seven Steps to Stress-Free Husbandry
by Deborah A Jones, Ph.D.

Deb Jones has a PhD in Psychology and is a legend in the dog training world.  She also runs a fantastic Facebook group on the topic called “Cooperative Care with Deb Jones”.

“Be the turtle.” – Deb Jones.

(… meaning slow and steady wins the race)


“The suddenness of my assertive touch sobered her. Instinctively, she knew it was time to surrender, because making contact on the nape of a dog’s neck is a familiar connection point communicating status and authority.”

“Instinctively, I placed what I call my “Kung Fu Finger” gently on the scruff of his neck. When we touch our dogs on the nape of the neck, we remind them that we are the authority. This is where their mother picked them up when they were young and where aggressive dogs target their attacks.”

PLEASE NOTE: You are NOT a dog – nor are you your dog’s mother. This is not you communicating your status and authority. This is simply you using body language signals to communicate aggression and instill fear in your dog.

“After your dog retreats as a result of your intensified, fear-generating actions, place the bowl on the floor between your feet. This is known as the Asset Ownership position.”

TRANSLATION: This is you, behaving like a lunatic.

ANALOGY: You arrive at your favorite restaurant and order your favorite dish. The waiter brings your meal and proceeds to set it on the table and stand over you, arms crossed and staring menacingly down at you. He continues to hold this stance, never speaking until you back away from the table. Only then, does he step back and say “Enjoy your meal.” Does this sound like the behavior of a sane individual?? Would you ever go back to that restaurant?

“Trust the process. Be patient, and remain in the asset-guarding position because the fun part of the training session has only just begun. Now that you have established ownership over the object your dog desires, they will not attempt to snatch it unless you lose focus and become distracted. Observe your dog over the next 10 minutes or so as its attention becomes single pointed on the hot dog (the object of their meditation). Notice as your dog progresses through increasingly relaxed positions, organically searching for stillness in their body.”

TRANSLATION:  Stand over your dog’s bowl and continue to intimidate and bully your dog with your aggressive stance and delight in his efforts to use appeasement gestures to beg you to stop aggressing towards him. Can you imagine how a dog must feel after 10 minutes of this treatment?!?

NOTE: If your dog is looking away, panting, lifting a paw, laying down or rolling over, it can generally be translated to a dog that is worried, confused or scared.

Check out my blog on body language and this great Body Language video by The Family Dog.  

DOG TRAINING MANUALS TO CHOOSE INSTEAD

Doggie Language: A Dog Lover’s Guide to Understanding your Best Friend
by Lily Chin

Lili Chin creates educational artwork for veterinarians and dog trainers. This little book is an excellent reference on how to interpret your dog’s body language


On Talking Terms with Dogs: Calming Signals
by Turid Rugaas

Turid Rugaas is a dog trainer and behaviorist in Norway. She is world-renowned for her work with calming signals in dogs – body language that dogs use to help calm themselves and others in stressful situations.

“We need to learn to understand the language of dogs so that we can understand what our dogs are telling us. That is the secret of having a good life together.” – Turid Rugaas


A Kids’ Comprehensive Guide to Speaking Dog!: A fun, interactive, educational resource to help the whole family understand canine communication.
by Niki Tudge

Niki Tudge is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant and the founder of The Pet Professional Guild – the Association for Force Free Pet Professionals.

“Keep future … generations safe by learning to “speak dog!””


“An eagle can swoop down and catch prey when it least expects it, so be like the eagle, and catch your dog in the moment it makes an indoor potty. In this moment, snap your fingers or make a gently conflict-seeking sound, followed by direct eye contact. This action is the “bad cop” moment, and the forbidden angle clearly communicates “no.” Don’t feel sad or think your puppy will get mad at you. Remember, fear is a normal emotion and animals don’t relate to it like we do.”

TRANSLATION: Take a puppy who has been on this earth for all of 8 to 10 weeks and set him up for failure. Wait for him to have an accident in your house and then swoop in to scare the living daylights out of him. Is this the stance that anyone would choose to use when potty training their child?!?

A BETTER WAY: Set your puppy up for success!! Take him out to potty every hour or two and reward him generously when he potties outside.

DOG TRAINING MANUALS TO CHOOSE INSTEAD

The Puppy Primer by Patricia McConnell, Ph.D.

Patricia McConnell has a Ph.D. in animal behavior and is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant.  Her blog, The Other End of the Leash, is filled with training advice and wonderful stories about her dogs.

“We dog lovers share a kind of Zen-like communion with our dogs, uncluttered by nouns and adverbs and dangling participles. This connections speak to a part of us that needs to be nurtured and listened to, but that is so often drowned out in the cacophony of speech. Dogs remind us that we are being heard, without the additional weight of words. What a gift. No wonder we love them so much” – Patricia McConnell


Perfect Puppy in 7 Days: How to Start Your Puppy Off Right
by Dr. Sophia Yin, DVM

Sophia Yin was a veterinary behaviorist and dog trainer

“Instead of using coercion, we can learn to lead like a leader in a dance.” – Dr. Sophia Yin (1966-2014)


Before & After Getting Your Puppy: The Positive Approach to Raising a Happy, Healthy & Well-Behaved Dog
by Dr. Ian Dunbar, DVM

Dr. Dunbar is a veterinarian and animal behaviorist who founded the Association of Pet Dog Trainers

“You can instill fear in your kids and get them to mind, but they won’t function better in the world and your relationship will suffer greatly.” – Ian Dunbar


Easy Peasy, Puppy Squeasy: Raising and Training a Happy Puppy by Steve Mann

Steve Mann is a professional trainer and behaviorist.

“If you have a dog that likes hanging out with you, 90% of your problems are gone.” – Steve Mann on developing the Rucksack Walk


“Puppies chew things to explore, learn, and soothe the pain of teething. How we act in these moments shapes their future behavior. Screaming or showing excitement, for example, quickly turn the act of teething into an interactive game.”

Absolutely true … but here is where the author gets it really wrong

“On the other hand, acting assertively and using Alpha tactics to guard the moccasin like a resource (a power object) would effectively stop Rambo from chewing them. Asserting yourself in this fashion to such a young pup, however, makes you come across as unnecessarily scary. It’s not age-appropriate until about six months of age.”

TRANSLATION:  Screaming and yelling like a lunatic is inappropriate, but using fear and aggression stances is okay as soon as your puppy is 6 months old. Seriously, I can’t even …..

NOTE: Puppies and dogs chew, dig and bark – that, my friends, is the nature of a dog.

A BETTER WAY: Puppy-proof your home … just like you would baby-proof your home. Make sure your puppy has plenty of appropriate chew toys and encourage him to chew appropriately by using toys that can be filled with food or treats.

DOG TRAINING MANUALS TO CHOOSE INSTEAD

Meet Your Dog: The Game-Changing Guide to Understanding your Dog’s Behavior
by Kim Brophey

This is THE most important book on the market right now.

Kim Brophey is an applied ethologist and certified dog trainer and behaviorist.  She has developed an amazing framework called L.E.G.S. to help owners understand and know their dogs. Learning includes your dog’s training and experiences; Environment is your dog’s external world – his home, his family, etc. Genetics is your dog’s inherited characteristics; and Self encompasses your dog’s internal world – his nutrition, health, etc.

“Learning is not an event; it is a constant process, and it is your responsibility to foster experiences that will be beneficial to her perpetual learning.” – Kim Brophey


Canine Enrichment for the Real World: Making It a Part of your Dog’s Daily Life
by Allie Bender and Emily Strong


Allie Bender and Emily Strong are certified dog trainers and behavior consultants.


Canine Enrichment: The Book your Dog Needs You to Read
by Shay Kelly

Shay Kelly is a certified canine behavior consultant. His “Canine Enrichment” Facebook page is filled with excellent ideas.

“A recall should never signal the end of something interesting. It should signal the beginning of something fabulous” – Shay Kelly


“Alphas are conscientious commanders. We don’t ask our dogs to do things; we tell them to do things. They listen to us and serve us with joy, because our actions mean love in all forms.

TRANSLATION:  Dogs are furry little minions who were created solely for our pleasure and amusement.

A BETTER WAY:  Dogs are sentient beings who have emotion. They feel fear, anger and pain. They are not here to simply do our bidding.

DOG TRAINING MANUALS TO CHOOSE INSTEAD

Bones Would Rain from the Sky: Deepening Our Relationships With Dogs
by Suzanne Clothier

Suzanne Clothier is a world class dog trainer, known for her ralationship-centered training methods.

One of the best books I have ever read about the bond between humans and dogs.

“One of the great pleasures of being with dogs is their spontaneous expression of what they are feeling” – Suzanne Clothier


The Other End of the Leash: Why We Do What We Do Around Dogs
by Patricia McConnell, Ph.D.

Patricia McConnell has a Ph.D. in animal behavior and is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant.  Her blog, The Other End of the Leash, is filled with training advice and wonderful stories about her dogs.

“Positive reinforcement is always, by definition, decided by the receiver, not by the “giver’.” – Patricial McConnell


Human Canine Behavior Connections: A Better Self Through Dog Training
by Marissa Martino


Marissa Martino is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant. Her “Paws and Reward” podcast is great source of information about how to foster a bond with your dog.


Wag: The Science of Making your Dog Happy
by Zazie Todd, Ph.D.

Zazie Todd has a Ph.D. in psychology and is a certified professional dog trainer. Check out Zazie Todd’s blog, Companion Animal Psychology.

“Don’t use punishment. It does not teach your dog what to do instead of the problem behavior and it interferes with the dog’s feelings of safety.” – Zazie Todd


“For example, when your dog snatches a dirty sock from your laundry for a game of tug, make your assertive noise, march toward them in a straight line, and watch as they drop the sock and offer you a Calming Signal.”

“Begin to imagine that you’re a lion, an animal no dog would dare challenge. Slowly stand up, and remain still; this is known as the Mountain Pose in yoga. Softly gaze at your dog, sending it the tiniest vibration of fear and inviting it for a challenge.”

TRANSLATION: The next time your dog grabs a sock and invites you to play, advance on him in aggressive posture to scare him into dropping the sock and cowering away from you.

A BETTER PLAN: Present a toy or treat to trade for the sock and then play with your dog.

NOTE: When your dog resists you taking something from him, he is simply engaging in what every other mammal (including humans) in the animal kingdom does – guarding a resource. While unwanted, it is perfectly natural behavior.

ANALOGY: Kerrie absolutely LOVES chocolate, but, alas, she is on a diet.  After a week of eating only healthy stuff, she just sat down to enjoy a slice of chocolate cake.  Her husband walks up, grabs her plate and starts eating her cake.  What would Kerrie do?  Well, I can tell you that she would not sit quietly while he eats the slice of cake that she has been looking forward to all week.  BUT, what if, instead, her husband walks up and says “Hey, want to trade that chocolate cake for this slice of chocolate cheesecake?”  Well, now we are talking!  

LESSON: Trade your dog for something of equal or higher value.

DOG TRAINING MANUALS TO CHOOSE INSTEAD

Mine!: A Practical Guide to Resource Guarding in Dogs
by Jean Donaldson

Jean Donaldson is a certified dog trainer and behavior consultant and an instructor at the Academy for Dog Trainers.

“The sad objective of these trainers seems to be to reach the end of the dog’s life having dispensed as few rewards as possible. It’s difficult to explain why an animal trainer would strive to be as stingy as possible, give the evidence of how powerful and safe positive reinforcement is. Maybe it’s psychological.” – Jean Donaldson


Other excellent dog training manuals to choose:

  • Barking:  The Sound of a Language by Turid Rugaas
  • How Dogs Learn by Mary R. Burch and Bob Bailey
  • How to Behave So Your Dog Behaves by Sophia Yin
  • Inside of a Dog: What Dogs See, Smell and Know by Alexandra Horowitz
  • My Dog Pulls. What Do I Do? by Turid Rugaas
  • The Power of Positive Dog Training by Pat Miller
  • The Cautious Canine:  How to Help Dogs Conquer their Fears by Patricia McConnell
  • The Puppy Whisperer: A Compassionate, Nonviolent Guide to Early Training and Care by Paul Owens and Terence Cranendonk
  • Feeling Outnumbered?:  How to Manage and Enjoy your Multi-Dog Household by Karen B. London, Ph.D.
    • Karen London is a certified dog trainer and applied animal behaviorist.
  • Feisty Fido:  Help for the Leash Aggressive Dog by Patricia McConnell
  • Be Right Back!: How To Overcome Your Dog’s Separation Anxiety And Regain Your Freedom by Julie Naismith
    • Julie Naismith is a certified professional dog trainer and separation anxiety expert.  She runs a SA support group on Facebook called Dog Separation Anxiety Training Support with Julie Naismith.
  • I’ll Be Right Back:  How to Prevent and Treat Separation Anxiety by Patricia McConnell
  • The Midnight Dog Walkers:  Positive Training and Practical Advice for Living with Reactive and Aggressive Dogs by Annie Phenix
    • Annie Phenix is a certified professional dog trainer.  She has a reactive dog support group on Facebook called The Official Midnight Dog Walkers Group.
  • Control Unleashed books by Leslie McDevitt
    • Leslie McDevitt is a certified professional dog trainer and behavior consultant.

(Disclaimer:I received a complimentary advanced reader copy of “Enlightened Dog Training” through NetGalley. Opinions expressed in this review are completely my own.)

Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, FDM, FFCP
Kerrie Hoar, M.S., CCPDT-KA, IAABC-ADT, FDM, FFCP

Kerrie Hoar has a master’s degree in Biology and is a certified professional dog trainer and family dog mediator. She owns Crimson Hound, LLC dog training in La Crosse, Wisconsin.